Also, each of these bases will only bond with one other base. It is important to realize how DNA greatly affects a cell’s functions, in growth, movement, protein building, and many other duties. DNA is not nearly complex in structure as I had thought either. Containing only it’s three main parts of a sugar, phosphate, and of course it’s base. From these studies it is easy to see how DNA and RNA greatly affect the life and functions of an organism.
DNA and RNA are the genetic information that organisms with hold. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) contains four nucleotides, 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogen bases carrying genetic information of the cell. The strands of DNA, one end having unlinked 5’ carbon and the other end having 3’ carbon, have direction and polarity (Freeman). DNA contains the bases guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine. On the other hand RNA (ribonucleic acid) contains nucleotides having sugar ribose and is usually single stranded.
The transmission of hereditary traits to some extent has it’s molecular basis in the replication of DNA. The process of DNA replication produces numerous amounts of copies of genes that can be transferred/passed from the parent to the offspring. Animals and plants have specific cells that drive the inheritance of genes. These cell’s are called reproductive cell’s(gametes). Gametes transmit genes from one generation to the next.
DNA is made of a deoxyribose sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen containing bases. The four nitrogen containing bases are divided into two groups, Purines and pyrimidines. The structure of DNA is called a double helix because it resembles a spiral stair case. We also learned about, complementary base pairing, replication of DNA, mutations and the structure of RNA. RNA included all three types of mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
Realize that eukaryotes require the activity of telomerase to complete the synthesis of their linear chromosomes. The Semiconservative Nature of DNA Replication One property of the genetic material necessary for its function is the ability to replicate (reproduce) itself. After it was established that DNA is the genetic material, attention turned toward how DNA was replicating in living organisms. The Watson-Crick model of DNA structure (as outlined in the module on nucleic acids) suggested a possible mechanism for replication of DNA molecules. The nature of base pairing meant that if the two strands of a DNA molecule were separated, they could each serve as a template for the creation of a complementary strand by bringing in individual nucleotides to base pair with their complementary base on the template, and joining the new nucleotides together.
The Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis Genetic code is the sequence of organic bases on the double strands of DNA. These bases line up in a particular order to code for things like eye colour, hair colour and height. Every person has an individual genetic code and no two persons are exactly the same. DNA replicates in a semi-conservative manner. The two strands are separated by an enzyme called Helicase and both become templates for new DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the building block of life. The backbone of DNA is composed of four different bases: thymine (T), guanine (G), adenine (A), and cytosine (C). Each base is then attached to a phosphate group and a sugar, forming a single nucleotide. Genetic information is encoded by the sequence of nucleotides in the strand; therefore, the quantity and sequence of nucleotides in a strand of DNA differs depending upon the organism. Each base’s chemistry renders it specifically complementary with one other base (A-T and C-G).
Transcription and Translation follow DNA replication in the central dogma of life. This term, central dogma, refers to the process by which DNA forms RNA which further forms proteins. This begins with transcription which is the process of creating RNA from DNA. RNA is a nucleic acid similar to DNA, but it has three major differences. These differences are RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded, the backbone of RNA is made of ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose sugar, and RNA has uracil as one the bases in its nucleotide instead of thymine.
Adenine bonds with thymine, and cytosine bonds with guanine. The “backbone” of the DNA is the phosphate group and the ribo group bonded by covalent bonds. What is the difference between RNA and DNA? Well, as discussed before, there is one oxygen atom missing from the sugar in DNA, but there are more di... ... middle of paper ... ...s are the only reason why human beings are human beings and not a cabbage. Living things are only each different because of the order of the 4 bases arranged in different patterns to form DNA, our genetic material.