It has revolutionized the study of medicine, saved countless of lives, and played a key role as a foundation for the development of other efficient antibiotics. The discovery of penicillin has greatly improved the way doctors were able to treat patients and gave way to a new era of antibiotics. History Prior to the discovery of penicillin, scientists had various ideas about bacteria, or rather the existence of it, and how disease should be treated. Doctors in the early 19th century had a hard time accepting that disease was caused by something that they could not see with their own eyes. Alexander Gordon recommended in 1795 to wash the surgeon's hands and person before operating on anyone.
The idea soon influenced medicine, the idea of strengthening the healthy cells and isolating them from the unhealthy ones. The simple idea Darwin discovered had changed medicine as a whole. Today, doctors and scientists are able to manipulate genes in order to create new treatments and cures. Today, Darwin’s discovery changed and saved millions of lives around the world. Despite the fact that genetic engineering can have a negative impact on society, it was an important discovery due to the advancement in conventional medicine.
By gathering texts and conquering lands, Western European scholars’ pieced together knowledge about hospitals, staving off disease, and how science should be conducted through observation not superstition ushering a new age in the progression of the practice of medicine. Surgical techniques in medieval Europe most often consisted of the amputation of limbs and bloodletting as a means of curing disease. These simple yet dangerous techniques had unpredictable outcomes. Infection was the biggest problem for surgeons so to get around this they used cauterization of the wounds. Avicenna promoted this in his canon of medicine, which set precedence in Weste... ... middle of paper ... ...scholarly sources to educate themselves and began to unearth new ways to treat disease.
Atul Gawande, in his collection of essays entitled Complications: A Surgeon’s Notes on an Imperfect Science, sheds light on this view of medicine as a field of possibilities and dead ends, improvements and failures. In spite of the many changes brought forth by medicine, the evolution of the patient and doctor relationship into one that redefines the role of the patient in healthcare is arguably the most telling. Medical progress has been met by a new generation of patients who are more educated, better informed about their health, and are playing an increasingly active role in the decision-making surrounding their care. We no longer think of medicine as a one-way road with the physician making all the decisions pertinent to the patient’s health. The effectiveness of medical care is dependent as much on a doctor’s ability to make reasonable, sound judgments as on the patient’s ailment and right to demand the best possible care.
This was most probably the first ever to describe a phenomenon through objective observations. Through his observations, he believed that illness was due to an imbalance in the body. This idea prevailed for many centuries in the history of medicine. Hippocrates succeeded Alcmaeon and rejected the superstitious ideas of priests being the only healers. He founded a medical school and taught his students that since disease came from something natural, it must be treated by natural means.
The eighteenth century saw many advances in the education of medicine. Outdated theories began to be turned into practical observation which sprang new thoughts and theories. The many medical discoveries of this period ‘…eventually made it impossible for faculty professors to deny the value of a detailed knowledge of the human body’ (Book1, p.357). Preconceptions were diminished on the ‘demeaning’ activities of surgery and pharmaceuticals and physicians were now ‘…encouraged to become experts themselves in the arts of surgery and pharmacy’ (Book 1, p.358). The eighteenth century saw the influence of the enlightenment institution which promoted ‘…the value of practical institutionalized learning’ (Book 1, p.345) instigating the calling for hopes of rehabilitating medical institutions across the world.
The bio-medical model of ill health has been at the forefront of western medicine since the end of the eighteenth century and grew stronger with the progress in modern science. This model underpinned the medical training of doctors. Traditionally medicine had relied on folk remedies passed down from generations and ill health was surrounded in superstition and religious lore with sin and evil spirits as the culprit and root of ill health. The emergence of scientific thinking questioned the traditional religious view of the world and is linked to the progress in medical practice and the rise of the biomedical model. Social and historical events and circumstances were an important factor in its development as explanations about disease were being found in biological systems of the body that contradicted the belief that linked causation to divine intervention or superstition.
This led to gathering more information about natural remedies and cures. Greek physicians became terrific herbalists of natural cures and because the natural remedies worked, the Greeks became convinced that nature was the best healer. This is what I have learned about different Greek medicine as it applies to childbirth, deadly diseases, and medical procedures, battle wound including damaged bone and joints, depression, acne, ... ... middle of paper ... ... of medicine until about the eighteenth century. One of the major medical minds during the time was Hippocrates. He approached health by changing patient’s diet and environment to hopefully help cure them.
However, personalized medicine can be noted in past medical cases when physicians required extensive information on family histories before treating patients. While, this cannot be compared to modern personalized medicine techniques, it was an early step in exploring benefits of personalized medicine (Theodorescu, 24). Today one of the principal areas for the application of personalized medicine is oncology; cancer cases have provided an excellent channel to investigate the abilities of personalized medicine techniques (Gilbert, 18). Conventional cancer management included “treating according to the organ or tissue in which the cancer originates” (Van’t Veer, 564). Personalized medicine involves the use of biomarkers to classify patients, and unlike conventional treatments, these biomarkers may suggest that the patient would benefit best by having no treatment at all.
The Victorian Era was not only founded problems but also helped create medical breakthroughs that will last forever or be improved upon. Joseph Lister, a very well known surgeon of the time, had revolutionized sanitation of wounds post surgery. “Not until Joseph Lister demonstrated in the 1860s that hospital infections could be prevented by the lavish use of carbolic acid as an antiseptic and hospitals became gradually safer.” (Health, Medicine, and Society in Victorian England p. 25-26) Lister wanted a safer more sterile environment to do surgery and for his patients to recover in after the procedures. So, unlike doctors of his time, he used carbolic acid as an antiseptic on wounds. Dr. Lister first experimented with carbolic acid as an antiseptic but would eventually work with other things like chloride of zinc on some wounds.