The Introduction Hip hop as a ding an sich is marked by some confusion. Consider the name; is it "hip hop," "hip-hop" or "hiphop"? You will see all three used in titles in this bibliography. Hip hop is, at the same time, a cultural phenomenon that developed in the late 70's in the projects in Brooklyn and the Bronx, and a musical style from that phenomenon. Nevertheless, hip hop has become a pervasive element of popular culture, as witnessed by this bibliography.
The name hip-hop comes from one of the earliest phrases used in rap on the song “Rapper’s Delight” by Sugarhill Gang. “I said a hip hop, hippie to the hippie, the hip, hip a hop, and you don't stop, a rock it to the bang bang boogie, say, up jump the boogie, to the rhythm of the boogie, the beat.”. In addition to rap music, the hip-hop subculture also formed other methods of expression like break dancing, graffiti art, a unique slang vocabulary, and fashion sense. Rap started in the mid-1970s in the South Bronx area of New York City. The birth of rap is, in many ways, like the birth of rock and roll.
Herc's musical parties eventually gained notoriety and were often documented on cassette tapes that were recorded with the relatively new boombox, or blaster, technology. Taped duplicates of these parties rapidly made their way through the Bronx, Brooklyn, and uptown Manhattan, spawning a number of similar DJ acts. Among the new breed of DJs was Afrika Bambaataa, the first important Black Muslim in rap. (The Muslim presence would become very influential in the late 1980s.) Bambaataa often engaged in sound-system battles with Herc, similar to the so-called cutting contests in jazz a generation earlier.
The introducing of MTV only made hip hop more mainstream. Next were the Beastie Boys were diversified hip-hop by being a white trio who broadened rap’s audience and popularized digital sampling by composing with music and sounds electronically extracted from other recordings. Beginning in 1989 the populur group N.W.A came out with a dynamic album Straight Outta Compton. N.W.A. and former members Ice Cube, Eazy E, and Dr. Dre led the way as West Coast rap grew in prominence in the early 1990s.
His style had a lot of influence on reggae because of his Jamaican heritage. “Hip-Hop started when my father bought a PA system and didn't know how to hook it up. I was messing around with music and I started out by buying a few records to play at my house” (DJ Kool Herc). Kool Herc started playing his records at parties and would “call your name on the mic” ,a style used by Jamaican deejays called toasting, which is a shout out that he would do to all his friends .This lead to emceeing which is what we call rap today. Kool Herc is known as the Father of Hip-Hop because he started this movement.
Although many may think that hip hop is a music genre, it is truthfully a culture—a culture that is recognized by its “main elements: graffiti, DJing, breakdancing (B-boying), MCing (rapping), and beatboxing” (Global Awareness). Hip hop is known in academic literature as a way to get youth involved in the arts and the terms rap and hip hop can be used interchangeably (Hadley and Yancy 41). When many people think about hip hop, they think about Rappers Delight by the Sugar Hill Gang. However, officially hip hop was created on November 12, 1974 when this new music culture was born (Hip Hop History). Afrika Bamabaataa, a Bronx DJ known to be one of the godfathers of hip hop, created the hip hop culture (Hip Hop History).
DJ Kool Herc is widely considered the father of Hip-Hop. He would take samples of previously recorded tracks and record them with his own music as he shouted lyrics over them (Rhodes). Rhodes cites DJ Kool Herc as the first DJ to use a turn table. He would buy two records of the same time and emphasize the breaks in the song by scratching both tracks at once. Herc used finished songs to make his beats and manipulated them on his turn table.
There are a lot of articles, books, movies and documentaries written and produced each year with hip-hop being the main subject. This great plethora of media not only affects the youth but other people as well. However, one needs to understand how the rap culture got started, and why the media found it interesting enough to give it a substantial amount of coverage. According to Webster, rap is rhythmic chanting of usually rhyming couplets to a musical accompaniment (Webster, 607). The rap subculture began in the African community residing in the Bronx during the 70’s with rappers free styling—when artists rhyme without memorization or writing down lyrics—in the park, on street corners and in apartment basements (Watkins, 63).
Rap music began in the slums of New York in the 1970s. It has many different types with pop, gospel and gangsta rap being the three most popular. Pop rap was the first type of rap music to evolve from the hip-hop music genre. It experienced widespread popularity across many different races and socioeconomic groups. Pop rap was a way for rappers to make the music suitable for music television programs and radio stations (Lommel 48).
It delivered aggressive, self assertive style. The artist projected a tough, cool street bboy attitude. Hip hop formed during 1970's when block parties became increasing popular in new york, among African American youth living in the Bronx. Block party's included dj's who played popular genres of music, like funk and sound music. Introduced Dj Kool Herc who was considered the father of hip hop.