Because of it's genetic makeup, hemophilia is carried by females however those affected are almost always males. In one-third of all cases hemophilia thought to be caused by spontaneous gene mutation with no family history. This is how females are able to be affected by hemophilia. Inheritance is controlled by a recessive sex-linked factor carried by the mother on the X chromosome. There is a fifty percent chance that the sons of a female carrier will have hemophilia.
Hemophilia is an X-Linked recessive pattern, which means it is passed down from a mother, who is a carrier of the trait, to a son, and each of the sons would have 50% chance of getting hemophilia. For example, if a normal mother is a carrier for hemophilia, and 2 out of 4 of her sons would have hemophilia, but the rest would be normal. In rare cases, girls, who are carrier of this disorder, can have some of the symptoms as men. For example, a hemophilia carrier women cut herself, she would bleed non stop and her blood won't clot properly (“Hemophilia Medical”). Next, we’re going to talk about many of the symptoms or signs of hemophilia.
With the time and at certain size of the plaque in the artery that it became more narrowed that increase the possibility of pain or discomfort, have you ever felt pain while exercise? This is also a cause of the atherosclerosis. According to Heart Matters, “This can happen either in the chest (angina) due to lack of blood getting to the heart, or in the calves (claudication) due to lack of blood to the legs. The most dangerous outcome of atherosclerosis occurs if the plaque ruptures (breaks down). The blood flowing over the top of the plaque can clot, causing a blockage in the artery that can result in a heart attack, or it can be carried downstream causing a stroke (Bennet).
The low estrogen level results in an accelerated bone loss. This can lead to osteoporosis and an increased risk of fracture. There are also many other factors which can increase your risk, and these are early menopause (before 45), early hysterectomy (especially if one or both ovaries were removed), or infrequent periods often linked to over-dieting (especially anorexia) or over-exercising (long distance running). Other risk factors are a fracture after a minor accident or fall, long term or high dose oral corticosteroid treatment, family history (parent or close relative with os...
The presence of a mutated gene may not be noted until a woman with no family history of hemophilia has a son with the disorder. The gene for hemophilia is carried on the X chromosome. The gene for hemophilia is also recessive. This is why hemophilia is referred to as an X-linked recessive disorder. If there is not a normal gene present to offset the defective, recessive gene, the disorder will be present.
However, females of a certain race, nationality or those who live in a certain region of the world have the same risk of having Turner’s. One in every 2000 to 2500 baby girls are born with Turner’s, according to the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Normally if a baby is conceived with an X chromosome missing, the body will naturally abort the baby, which is a miscarriage. Turner’s is usually the cause of almost 10% of miscarriages in the first trimester. Monosomy is the reason that one X chromosome is missing completely, which means that every cell in the person’s body is missing one X chromosome.
Atherosclerosis is a very serious condition that requires medical attention and a change in life style because it is a precursor to many dangerous and potentially fatal diseases. Atherosclerosis begins when the inner wall of the artery becomes damaged and cholesterol and fatty plaques begin to lodge in the arteries. Damage to the endothelial wall inside the artery can be caused by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia (“Subclinical Atherosclerosis..” 443). When this happens, the immune system responds by sending monocytes to the damaged area. The monocytes turn into macrophages; their job is to eat up the excess cholesterol and unblock the artery.
Of the children of a hemophiliac male and a normal female, all the girls will be carriers and all the boys will be normal. Males cannot transmit the disability, and female carriers are free of the disease. Conventional wisdom suggests that 1 in 10,000 males in the United States have hemophilia. However, increased research and focus, on bleeding disorders in general and on bleeding disorders in women specifically, suggest a shift in what... ... middle of paper ... ...h factor VIII replacement therapy is best for them. Inhibitors are proteins called antibodies that are made by our immune system to defend us from harmful disease.
If a male receives an X chromosome with the defect, he will be hemophilic. If a female receives an X chromosomes with the defect, her other X chromosome would dominate, leaving the female as a carrier of the gene (Carriers, “Individuals who have only one copy of the recessive, disease causing allele for a particular genetic disease). To run the point home, the son of a mother who carries of the gene and an unaffected (Unaffected Individuals, “Individuals who do not have an allele for a particular genetic disease) father is 50% likely to suffer with Hemophilia. While the daughter is 0% likely to be affected and 50% likely to carry the gene. The only way a female could be affected by Hemophilia is if both her mother was a carrier or affected by the gene and her father had the defect.
This creates pockets that allow bacteria to build up, which leads to an infection. As your body fights the harmful bacteria, the bone and tissue holding the teeth in place begin breaking down. The pockets deepen and begin filling with pus. Once you reach this stage, you may need to have surgery to save your teeth. If not treated, the infection begins destroying the bone around the teeth.