Husserl uses the lifeworld as a means to explain the rational structures underlying transcendental intersubjectivity; the structures are initially unconscious to us (Beyer). Act ascription is ultimately based upon and epistemically justified by the lifeworld. The lifeworld is the unthematic sociolcultural world shaped by normativity, historicity and tradition (Zahavi 133). The lifeworld is shaped by certain morphological structures that are historically mediated by communities; the lifeworld would be chaotic otherwise. (Zahavi 130). The lifeworld that is shared by a single community of subjects is known as the homeworld (Beyer). Subjects from different lifeworlds can share a general a priori framework; this allows for translation between the lifeworlds (Beyer). The subjective-relative lifeworld exists as the condition of possibility for our scientific and epistemological claims, yet is rooted in practical experience (Franck
Heideggers Conceptual Essences: Being and the Nothing, Humanism, and Technology Being and the Nothing are the same. The ancient philosopher Lao-tzu believed that the world entertains no separations and that opposites do not actually exist. His grounding for this seemingly preposterous proposition lies in the fact that because alleged opposites depend on one another and their definitions rely on their differences, they cannot possibly exist without each other. Therefore, they are not actually opposites. The simple and uncomplex natured reasoning behind this outrageous statement is useful when trying to understand and describe Martin Heideggers deeply leveled philosophy of Being and the nothing. Lao-tzus uncomplicated rationale used in stating that supposed opposites create each other, so cannot be opposite, is not unlike Heideggers description of the similarity between the opposites Being and the nothing. Unlike Lao-tzu, Heidegger does not claim that no opposites exist. He does however say that two obviously opposite concepts are the same, and in this way, the two philosophies are similar. He believes that the separation of beings from Being creates the nothing between them. Without the nothing, Being would cease to be. If there were not the nothing, there could not be anything, because this separation between beings and Being is necessary. Heidegger even goes so far as to say that Being itself actually becomes the nothing via its essential finity. This statement implies a synonymity between the relation of life to death and the relation of Being to nothingness. To Heidegger, the only end is death. It is completely absolute, so it is a gateway into the nothing. This proposition makes Being and the nothing the two halves of the whole. Both of their roles are equally important and necessary in the cycle of life and death. Each individual life inevitably ends in death, but without this death, Life would be allowed no progression: The nothing does not merely serve as the counterconcept of beings; rather, it originally belongs to their essential unfolding as such (104). Likewise, death cannot occur without finite life. In concordance with the statement that the nothing separates beings from Being, the idea that death leads to the nothing implies that death is just the loss of the theoretical sandwich's bread slices, leaving nothing for the rest of ever. The existence of death, therefore, is much more important in the whole because it magnifies the nothing into virtually everything.
Existentialism is a philosophical movement rooted in the work of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, who lived in the mid-1800s. The movement gained popularity in the mid-1900s thanks to the work of the French intellectuals Jean-Paul Sartre, and Albert Camus, including Sartre’s Being and Nothingness (1943). According to existentialists, life has no purpose, the universe is indifferent to human beings, and humans must look to their own actions to create meaning, if it is possible to create meaning at all. Existentialists consider questions of personal freedom and responsibility.Existentialism, better classified as a movement rather than a doctrine of philosophy, emerged in the mid to
exist as part of a philosophical tapestry aimed at revealing the nature of Being. In many ways, the stream of considerations in Being and Nothingness are parts of the examination of a single question – what is the nature of our existence? Sartre attempts to answer his question of existence in various ways, primarily through examining consciousness and its juxtaposition between existence and nothingness. The position in which Sartre places consciousness is forever qualified by self-perception and the perceptions of others, as applied to ourselves and others, so as to create a continual subject-object relationship through which being finds for itself a place to be.
...ording to Heidegger, become fearful of the prospect of death. He argues the correct response to death in one’s life is a form of ‘brave anxiety’ (Heidegger, pge 310, 1978). There is a distinction between this anxiety and outright fear towards death, where fear is attached to some object, person or idea (in this case the prospect of death). Anxiety involves what Heidegger describes as an ‘impassioned freedom towards death’ (Heidegger, pge 310, 1978) due to the fact anxiety is concerned with human freedom or lack thereof regarding choices we cannot make. As pointed out earlier death is out of our control and therefore should be regarded with anxiety rather than outright fear of something we cannot control. Heidegger seeks to explain death in these ways because he wishes to explore how the anxiety of death is related to being, not due to some kind of morbid curiosity.
Existentialism is a 20th century philosophical belief that emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice. It was first brought to public attention, through Jean Paul Sartre’s book L’existentalisme est un humanisme in the mid 1940’s. The philosophy allows humans to define what the true meaning of life is, to make their own rational decisions despite living in an irrational world. It deals with the absurdity of life and emphasizes action, freedom and decision as a fundamental. And the only way to rise above the essentially absurd condition of humanity (which is typically categorized as suffering and death) is by exercising personal freedom and choice. The philosophy of Existentialism and the Absurd is presented through the literary works
Using science to modify humans, and better ourselves is becoming more of a reality every year. The term transhumanism can be defined as, a method to increase human’s physical and mental capacities using science (Koch, pg 686). It’s an idea that has been around for as long as humans. Humans will always strive to better themselves, and with new advances in technology and bioengineering this becomes more of a reality. The best examples are simple technologies like pacemakers, or prosthetics. They help people to live better. There are certainly more transhumanist technologies that will be developed to help the human race. However, there are many ethical issues related to transhumanism as well. Dr. Heidegger’s Experiment is a piece of literature written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. It
The clinicians that use the approach of the humanistic-existential model believe that to function properly, humans, throughout their lives, have a need to develop perceptions and beliefs about oneself and to accept and value their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regardless of the consequences (Comer, 2016, pg. 58). Humanists argue that people are born good and over the course of their lives, they seek to fulfill their potential known as self-actualization (Comer, 2016, pg. 58). Existentialists believe that human comes to this world with the ability and freedom to choose their destiny and give purpose to their lives (Comer, 2016, pg. 58). From both perspectives, practitioners consider abnormality to be rooted in childhood as a result of
Simone de Beauvoir was an existential philosopher primarily focused on issues concerning the oppression and embodiment of women. Although she did not consider herself a philosopher, Beauvoir had significantly influenced both feminist existentialism and feminist theory; her place in philosophical thought can be considered in relation to major concepts such as existentialism, phenomenology, social philosophy, and feminist theory.
The son of a Catholic sexton, Heidegger displayed an early interest in religion and philosophy; at school he began an intensive study of the late 19th century Catholic philosopher Franz Brentano and, as we shall see, Brentano's "descriptive" psychology, as presented in his "On the Manifold Meaning of Being According to Aristotle", played a major role in Heidegger's philosophy.
I argue that the soul, the spirit, the essence of Dasein must be explained as well as the phenomena of existence in order to clarify the question 'What does it mean to be (Dasein)?'; Through the soul, Dasein may bridge the gaps of loneliness that occur in the solitude of single existence amongst Others. Psychology and morality provide excellent headquarters from which to launch this campaign in search of the soul of Dasein…How can one's soul exhibit both concernful solicitude and care while experiencing existential loneliness in the face of Death? When looking at the temporality of Dasein's existence, psychology corresponds to Heidegger's concept of already-being as does morality to being-ahead-of-itself, in relation to the prospect of having a soul.
Is it possible to live without fear of death? If you can, does it change your life and who you are as a whole? Lindqvist believes so. Early in the book he proposes the idea that with fear of death life has a deeper meaning. That only with the fear of death do...
Martin Heidegger is one of the most influential and highly regarded existential philosophers of the 20th century. Born in Meβkirch, Germany on September 26th 1889, Heidegger began his plight with life and theories of existentialism. Early in his life, Heidegger was influenced by Kierkegaard, and Edmund Husserl, which taught him the ideas of hermeneutics and phenomenology. Together, their ideas helped create one of Heidegger’s main ideas, his emphasis on being an authentic human being or “Dasein,” which translates “there Being.” The authenticity or Eigentlichkeit (own-ness) Heidegger preached was that a human being should strive to be an individual, to bring meaning to our lives. And if one does not seek to be an individual, Heidegger warns that they are doomed to dissolve into society and have no real life, a life controlled not by the ideas of the being, but of the society they belong to. Ultimately resulting in a life wasted because the being never formulated their own meaning to life.
Camus once said: “There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide.”(1991, pp.15) His words reflect the fact that the meaning of life and the relationship between life and death have always been fundamental and significant to philosophical thinkers. This essay is to discuss Heidegger, the famous German philosopher’s view of death, and present one objection from Sartre, and finally analyse the correctness of Sartre’s objection.