Ethical Healthcare Issues
There are questions about transplant allocation in regards to the four major ethical principles in medical ethics: beneficence, autonomy, nonmaleficence and justice. Beneficence is the “obligation of healthcare providers to help people” that are in need, autonomy is the “right of patients to make choices” in regards to their healthcare, nonmaleficence, is the “duty of the healthcare providers to do no harm”, and justice is the “concept of treating everyone in a fair manner” ("Medical Ethics & the Rationing of Health Care: Introduction", n.d., p. 1).
When medical care providers are forced to make decisions and these decisions “violate one of the four principles of medical ethics” so that they can adhere to another of these principles this is considered an ethical dilemma (“Medical Ethics & the Rationing of Health Care: Introduction”, n.d., p. 1). Bioethicists refer to the healthcare ethics four principles in their merits evaluation and medical procedure difficulties as transplants. Organ and or transplant allocation policies has a mixture of legal, ethical, scientific and many others, however the focus here will be to show how the four ethical principles, autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice, applies to transplant allocation (Childress, 2001, p. 5).
UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) is a system of allocation, what it does is arrange organs based on the region that the donations came from before being offered to outside regions. The focus is on the criteria for allocation that may be ethically defensible. It is maintained that organs are a resource of national community, for accidents are of geography and are “morally irrelevant” (DeVita, Aulisio, & May, 2001, p. 1). Many people are he...
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...ned and that every circumstance of each patient is considered individually.
Unanticipated harm should not be brought to donors, patients or anyone else that may be involved in the process of transplants. There should not be any intentional or malicious harm. If a patient has been placed in harm unknowingly or knowingly during transplantation, then this principle has been violated. Childress (2001), states that it is hard to define the nature of harm, for there are several types of harm. For example, if a healthcare provider does a transplant and the pain that is inflicted on that patient in the attempt to prevent death, then that healthcare provider has caused harm to avoid an even greater harm (p.4).
Ethical healthcare issues are unavoidable as long as we have healthcare organizations and healthcare professionals. Transplant allocation