As a military genius, Napoleon won many battles to expand France and was always welcomed back to France as a hero. His use of strategic warfare throughout many battles allowed him to be seen as a hero not only in France but all of Europe. Although his army was outnumbered by the Russians and Austrians in December 2, 1805, Napoleon' brilliant strategies resulted in a defeat of the opposing armies in the Battle of Austerlitz.
In Paris, the architectural design came into existence when Baron Hausmaan embarked on a radical project to rebuild Paris in order to address over population and resolve the strained infrastructure. The widening of streets allowed people to add extra height to buildings. Further, Napoleon and Haussmann yearned to modernize Paris, but they wanted to adhere to a more classical type of architecture. This resulted to building constructions with neoclassicism styles. As for Saint Petersburg, the city's architectural design was the result of professionals and artists' travel from one city to another.
A Prefect of Paris under Napoleon III, he transformed Paris into a city with wide streets, new shops and cafes, and a unified architecture. The visual appeal of the renovated city, along with other factors such as the high quality of the art schools, caused Impressionism to take off in Paris around this time (Thomson 2000: 19-20). Impressionist painters wanted to capture the present, not historical or idealistic scenes. For this reason, they painted boulevards, parks, train stations, and other places that were important to modern Paris life. Human figures were important subjects in their paintings, since one of the most effective ways to depict modern life is to show the people living in it.
As the directory leaned more and more heavily upon the military, a coup d’état developed. Because of his military expertise, he immediately became first consul of France. The empire of France was soon to grow once Napoleon was in reign. In the 1790s the French army was near one million men, an advantage in the Austrian wars as well as future ventures. Wars raged with other European countries in the early 1800s.
The most prominent reason is that it was a major point of controversy between Gustave Eiffel and the artists of Paris. Parisians opposed the construction of this atrocity. In a manifesto signed in 1887, two years before the Tower was built, artists of Paris claimed that the beauty of Paris will be debased by the repulsiveness of the edifice. They stated that artists from around the world would have the right to openly mock Paris. They opposed it remarkably so, that, quoting from the signed proposal, they insisted for twenty years “we will see stretching out over the entire city, still quivering with genius from so many centuries, we will see stretching out like a growing ink spot, the hateful shadow of the hateful column of bolted iron”.
Part of this revolution was the redesigning of cities. G.E. Baron Von Haussmann was the genius behind the new plans for the city of Paris. The redesign of Paris was one of the greatest ambitions for Napoleon III. He wanted to create another London, with large parks and open spaces.
Napoleon Bonaparte rose through the military ranks and became one of the greatest military leaders in history. He was such a great military leader that 1800 to 1815 has been renamed the Napoleonic Era because off all he has conquered. Napoleon ruled France, and eventually most of Europe during this time. Before Napoleon’s reign France was struggling to recover from the government collapse during the French Revolution. The French government had gone through five different governments since the beginning of the revolution, and after the failure of the French Directory, the French desperately need a leader.
The victory at the Battle of the Pyramids gave French control of Cairo, but the naval defeat at Aboukir Bay isolated the expedition from France. After some unsuccessful campaigning in Syria, he departed by ship with a small group of friends and sailed to France, abandoning his Army. In 1799, public sentiment had swung against the government, and following the coup d'etat de Brumaire, Napoleon became the defacto ruler of France. The country was still at war however, and after a dramatic crossing of the Alps, Napoleon defeated the Austrians at the battle of Marengo on 14 June 1800. This victory solidified his reputation of invincibility, and combined with other successes, led to a general peace.
They had achieved that by 1793. Many new reforms had been implemented in the country and it was much better off than it had been four years prior. I do agree with Kropotkin that the abolishing of serfdom and absolutism was a great achievement for France and that it did lead to a democratic system. Though this is true, the violence and bloodshed during the Revolution could have been minimized through committees and discussions. Schama is also right in that some men were too radical and their new found power went to their head.
Louis Le Vau: The Architect of France The 1600’s were influential years for interior design and architecture throughout the world, specifically in France. Design was becoming something to be celebrated, and with the Council of Trent calling for art that was less academic and more appealing to the public it was the perfect setting for a new era of design. Born in 1612 in Paris, Louis Le Vau would live on to become Chief Architect to the King. Originally from a wealthy family, Le Vau was trained by his father; a stone mason employed at Fontainebleau; and developed his skills in stone masonry. His career began by designing elegant hotels for the bourgeoisie in France.