Harappan Civilization And Development Of The Indus Valley Civilization

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The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization. It is mainly situated in the northwestern regions of South Asia, primarily centered in Pakistan and extending in to north east Afghanistan and north west India. There were three early civilizations of OLD WORLD i.e. Indus valley civilization, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. But, Indus valley civilization was the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus river, which flows through the length of Pakistan.
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappa Civilization, after Harappa. This was the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s. Then it was the Punjab province of British India, and is now Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo-Daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. From 1999, more than 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have
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It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Marshall. By 1931, much of Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated, but excavations continued, such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, director of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1944. Among other archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the independence in 1947 were Ahmad Hasan Dani, Brij Basi Lal, Nani Gopal Majumdar, and Sir Marc Aurel

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