Hannibal was born 247 BC, the son of Hamilcar Barca, the current General of the Carthaginian Army. Hannibal's training as a military leader began at the age of nine when he went to Spain to be with his father. At Hamilcar's request Hannibal pledged an oath of hate towards the Roman Empire because of Carthages lost to the Romans in the First Punic War (261-241 BC). After Hamilcar's death in 228 BC, Hannibal's brother in law, Hasdrubal, assumed command of the Carthaginian Army. Seven years, in 221BC, Hasdrubal was assassinated.
On the refusal of the Carthaginians to do so, the Romans declared war on Carthage, so because of that they precipitated in the Second Punic War. The march on Rome began Hannibal left Spain with an army of about 40,000, including cavalry and a lot of elephants carrying baggage and later used in battle. He traversed the Alps in 15 days, beset by snowstorms, landslides, and the attacks of hostile mountain tribes. After recruiting additional men and invaded the Roman provinces. Then Rome sent to oppose Hannibal.
The year 509 BC Rome finally became a Republic and thus started the Roman empire. As Rome rose to power they went through many wars and many conflicts between the plebeians and patricians. The republic was made out of 3 groups, the consuls which were 2 men elected from the senate, the senate which was made of 300 patricians, and the assembly made from plebeians. Many years later Rome started to reject the republic when it went into a series of civil wars. 3 men form the first triumvirate, Julius Caesar, Pompeii, and Crassus.
In order to get to Italy over land, Hannibal and his army would have to travel from Carthage-controlled Spain across the Alps and into the heart of the enemy. Hannibal left in the cold winter of 218 B.C. with 50,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants. While crossing the Alps, “Hannibal’s force suffered greatly from the elements and the hostility of the local tribesmen” (Beshara, 3). By the time they reached Italy, after only fourteen days, over 9,000 men had perished along with most of the elephants, but this number was soon replenished after 14,000 northern Gaul rebels joined Hannibal’s army.
Hannibal (b. 247 BC, North Africa--d. c. 183-181, Libyssa, Bithynia), Phoenician Carthaginian general, one of the great military leaders of antiquity, who commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC). Early life Hannibal was the son of the great Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca. According to Polybius and Livy, the main Latin sources for his life, Hannibal was taken to Spain by his father and at an early age was made to swear eternal hostility to Rome. From the death of his father in 229/228 until his own death c. 183, Hannibal's life was one of constant struggle against the Roman republic.
Because of this, Hamilcar made Hannibal swear a blood oath of hatred towards Rome. When Hannibal’s father died in 229 BCE, Hamilcar’s son in law, Hasdrubal, took command of the military of Carthage. During the time he was commander, he made Hannibal an officer in the Carthaginian army. In 221 BCE, Hasdrubal was killed and the Carthaginian soldiers unanimously chose Hannibal as their next commander, a decision that was later approved by their government. “At age 26, Hannibal was given command of an army and imm... ... middle of paper ... ...hern Europe and the Alps Mountains against Rome in the Second Punic War”(biography.com 5).
When Hannibal realized that he could not efficiently surround Rome with Italian states, he spread the conflict hoping to spread Rome’s resources thin. Hannibal brought different countries into the war against Rome. The real blow to Hannibal came in 209 when the Romans took Carthage and forced Hasdrubal out of Spain. This cut his main supply route off. Hannibal learned of the defeat when Hasdrubal's head was thrown into his camp.
From the beginning Carthage’s push into Spain, Hannibal vowed eternal hatred for Rome; Hannibal became Commander in Chief of Carthage’s army when he was 26 after his father was assassinated. His conquest of the Roman town of Sagunto in Spain led to a new declaration of war by Rome; which started the second Punic War and Hannibal’s promise to visit Roman injustice back on Rome a hundred fold. For Carthage to take the town of Sagunto was completely within the rights of the Carthage and the treaty but Rome at the time was getting too big and becoming very imperialistic. All Rome could see was that they had to have all of the Mediterranean and the only thing that stood in their way was a single General and his men. The way in which the Romans were unconsciously straying from "mos maiorum" to manipulate the course of events was disturbing.
he received Pompey 's head; Ptolemy thought that Caesar would return to Rome knowing that he had defeated Pompey. Caesar came to get Pompey and to claim money he says he was owed by Ptolemy the twelfth. Ptolemy declined and a war that consisted of burning ships, stealing lighthouses, and taking Ptolemy hostage. In the end Caesar defeated an army sent by Ptolemy and went to Alexandria in victory. From Egypt, Caesar traveled to Pontus (Eastern Turkey), The Romans had defeated the king, of the region twenty years before.
This war lasting 17 years, has often been called the “Hannibalic War,” One of the major exploits of this campaign was Hannibal’s decision to attack Rome from the north of Italy instead of the south. Hannibal was eventually defeated and rather than be captured he committed suicide. Carthage was also defeated weakening the state even more and increasing the Romans power. The third and Final Punic War was caused what some believe was war mongering by wealthy Roman senators with financial interests. Whatever the reason was, this war had a tragic outcome for Carthage ... ... middle of paper ... ... Sulla’s rule was significant partly due to the fact that he gained his position by a show of military force by marching his army into Rome and that once this power was gained he was granted the power of dictatorship.