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Hannibal Twenty-two centuries ago there lived a man named Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar Barca a Carthaginian. Hamilcar was a general in the Carthaginian military in the first Punic War. After the defeat of Carthage in the first Punic War, Hamilcar made Hannibal swear "eternal enmity" to Rome. In 228 b.c. Hasdrubal, Hannibal`s brother-in-law, succeeded Hamilcar and became commander. This meant that not only was the leader of the military but also the political leader as well. In 221 b.c. Hasdrubal was assassinated and Hannibal became commander in Spain. Hannibal was only 25 years old when he was put in command of the Carthaginian armies and the Carthaginian government in Spain. Even at a young age he knew his responsibilities, so he kept his father's plan of military conquest and his brother-in-law`s policy of strengthening Carthaginian power by democracy. He married a Spanish princess and took hostages from the surrounding tribes to ensure their loyalty to him. As a result of this he expanded the Carthaginian power toward the Ebro river, which was the written northern boundary of Carthage by the Rome treaty of 226. Rome attacked Saguntum, a city close to but clearly on the Carthaginian side of the border. This provoked Hannibal to take back Saguntum. The romans considered this an act of war. So in 218 b.c. Rome declared war on Carthage. This begins the second Punic War. After hearing the declaration of war Hannibal immediately starts off towards Rome. The problem was he had to go by land because Rome controlled the seas. Hannibal takes an army of thirty-five to forty thousand men, some on foot and others on horse, along with fifty war elephants across the Pyrenees and the Alps in August of 218. Bad luck falls into Hannibal's lap as early snows and landslides kill many of his men and almost all of his war elephants. While traveling through the Alps he fights battles at Arausio and Genua, easily defeating the Roman warriors, although his troops are in horrible shape. He enters Italy with only twenty-six thousand men and five or six war elephants in September 218. Hannibal and his troops spent the winter in Po Valley. In the spring of 217 b.c. Hannibal was joined by the Gauls, northern Italians who were subdued into fighting the Romans. Now Hannibal had a sufficient army of infantry and cavalry. The hardened Carthaginian troops easily crushed the Roman armies in their way, but without siege equipment the Carthaginians could not destroy the Roman cities. So instead of trying to siege the city they simple killed the Roman soldiers and moved on.

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