In the year 1793-94, the Reign of Terror invoked by the twelve members of Committee of Public Safety (CPS) was unavoidable and led the way for a metamorphosis to occur within France during the French Revolution. While the word terror is often associated with Halloween or stories meant to be frightening for fun, the word held a far more serious meaning to the people of France. The theme of fear allowed the CPS members to change the monarchy to a revolutionary government in hopes of eventually enacting the constitution already written (75). A group of well-educated radical republicans known as the Jacobins developed the CPS in the fifth year of the French revolution and each of the twelve members dealt with a monthly election to continue governing France (72). During this time, France and its people required assistance.
After the war, Charles de Gaulle led the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF). The Gaullist party and communism became the most popular parties, having worked diligently during the Resistance. (McNeill) The former political class of the Third Republic had been discredited by their compliance with the Nazis during World War II. The Three Parties Alliance, the Tripartisme, which consisted of the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO), and the Popular Republican Movement (MRP), supported a parliamentary system, whereas de Gaulle supported a presidential system. This difference of opinions caused a conflict in the party, and he resigned in January 1946.
In discussing how Revolutions begin, French historian Alexis de Tocqueville once stated, “...the most critical moment for bad governments is the one which witnesses their first steps toward reform.”1 There is no greater example of this than the French Revolution. Although the French Monarchy survived for many years, many within the government knew that the structure was growing bankrupt, and knew that the only solution to this would come through reforms which would pay their debts off in a way that would not burden their taxpayers, the Third estate. Ironically, while these reforms could have indeed helped the Third Estate, these individuals chose to revolt. Why? By addressing the causes of France’s debt and the reforms that could have averted this crisis effectively, this paper will show that the third estate in the end expected something more from these reforms than just less taxes and an economically stable government – they wanted to be equal with the higher estates of France.
Jefferson attacked Adams and the policies he put through, which was also well-hated universally by Americans. Though, in the end – after a long and contentious election process [note 1] – Jefferson became the president, and Aaron Burr his vice president. Though, he wasn’t president yet. In Adam’s last days, he foresaw the fall of the Federalists in both Congress and the Presidency; thus, Adams decided to strengthen the Supreme Court with Federalists and signed into law the Judiciary Act of 1801 right before Jefferson officially became president. Adams increased the size of the Supreme Court and appointed in place several more Judges.
The conflict with France, the high taxes needed to keep the army and navy operating, and the poor legislative faux pas Congress made during period time, all cast a negative reflection on President Adams. This provided his opponents, like Hamilton, Burr, and even Jefferson, with political leverage to use against him, just as politicians and political parties do in our own modern era. If Adams were a dictator, then one must ask would the citizens elect his son to be the future president, twenty-four years later? Or, how his grandson, Charles Francis Adams, became America’s minister to London. Apparently the citizenry remembered President Adams in a positive, democratic way, and not as a dictator.
In the spring of 1814 Napoleon Bonaparte was forced to abdicate his throne as emperor of the French. This caused much relief to the people of France as they had grown weary of being at war since the Revolutionary Wars began in 1792. Louis XVIII reclaimed his throne in the summer of 1814, and could have upheld the republican ideals that overthrew the Bourbons in the French Revolution. Instead Louis XVIII wanted to reform the current France back to before the revolution, and as Andrew W. Field asserts, the overall effect was that in "a short time the new king managed to alienate a large proportion of the population." Louis XVIII believed that the throne was his by divine right, and as such, saw the whole of France as traitors that supported the usurper Napoleon.
Second, Napoleon is a wise leader, but Louis 18 is a fatuous king. When Napoleon was defeated, bourbons re-ruled France. In order to make up for their losses during the reign of Napoleon, Louis 18 start his high taxes and extravagant ruling. Compared to the reign of Napoleon, Louis 18 makes economic downturn, prices improve, and French people cannot live a normal life. Throughout whole France, there are lots of uprising and r... ... middle of paper ... ...on/article/0,8599,1894531,00.html 2.
Introduction The French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790’s (staff). Just like the American Revolution the French Revolution started with new ideas of enlightenment. French citizens started to uproot everything that was considered normal, things such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system, they wanted to redesign everything (staff). Although a lot of the attempts failed people continued to try to make the change. The Beginning to a Highly Bloody Battle In 1786, Louis’s general, Charles Alexandre de Calonne, came up with the idea of a financial reform that included a universal land tax.
Most of these peasants were also loyal Catholics, and resented the loss of power of the Church, and were hungry for political change. By October 1791, the National Constituent Assembly believed that it had fulfilled its goal of creating a new Constitution, and dissolved itself. It set up a new Government called the Legislative Assembly, to enforce the new Constitution, which only lasted a further six months. Hence, the National Constituent Assembly had established important reforms but it had failed to solve the economic crisis that began the original revolt of the French people. The varying discontent it had created amongst different groups of society, far overshadowed those who were satisfied with the changes.
Italian and German aristocrats were overthrown as well, and the weakening of the Spanish nobility even led to the revolt. Napoleon's entire reign started with the constitution. After all the economic trouble in France there was a need for a new constitution, so Abbe Sieyes asked Napoleon to secure the success of the new constitution that was based on a principle of "confidence from below, power from above." Bonaparte was a very decisive individual, so he did not pay much attention to Sieyes and established his own Constitution of the Year VIII. This constitution made him the First Consul and had an overwhelming success.