The DNA molecules produced by reverse transcription are then Inserted into the genetic material of the host cell, where they are Co-replicated with the host's chromosomes; they are thereby distributed to All daughter cells during subsequent cell divisions. Then in one or more of these daughter cells, the virus produces RNA copies of its genetic material. These new HIV clones become covered with protein coats and leave the cell to find other host cells where they can repeat the life cycle. The Body Fights Back As viruses begin to invade the body, a few are consumed by macrophages, which seize their antigens and display them on their own surfaces. Among millions of helper T cells circulating in the bloodstream, a select few are programmed to read that antigen.
AIDS is a very infectious and dangerous virus that causes the death of many humans. AIDS is characterized by two single stranded RNA and uses enzyme reverse transcription to integrate into the hosts DNA. The AIDS virus is transmitted through sexual activity with someone that is infected with the virus. HIV has the most genetic diversity seen in viruses. HIV enters the immune system through bodily fluids from an infected party.
Once the virus is in the cell, it then uncoats itself freeing viral genes and enzymes. After the uncoating stage the virus then goes through the fourth stage, called reverse transcription, in this stage copies of viral RNA and DNA are produced. Once the DNA is copied it then enters the nucleus of the cell and undergoes what is called genome integration where the viral integrase splices viral DNA into cellular DNA. Once the cellular DNA is made, the cell then uses the new DNA as a template for reproducing the HIV RNA genome.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Life History The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an obligate intracellular parasite found exclusively in humans. It is responsible for weakening the immune system and leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The first case of AIDS was diagnosed in the U.S. in 1981, and in 1984 it was first proven that HIV caused AIDS. There is currently a pandemic of HIV/AIDS, with the highest incidence rate in Sub-Saharan Africa and the lowest rates in Western Europe and North America, due to better healthcare. Transmission HIV is spread by sexual contact or blood-to-blood contact.
Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, compromises an individual’s immune system, allowing for easier destruction of the human body by simple bacteria and viruses, eventually causing Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. It effectively causes the human body to fight itself, and it is therefore one of the most debilitating diseases known to man. 6,300 people worldwide die of HIV/AIDS complications every day. That means that in the 30 minutes it will take to read this paper, 131 humans will have passed away. The disease is hugely prominent in today’s society and will continue to have a major effect on humanity until a cure is hopefully found.
These cells are located by the mouth, vagina, rectum, and penis. The cells then transport the virus from the where the infection is to the lymph nodes where it also infects other immune system cells. Once inside the cell, the virus turns RNA into DNA, and then makes its way to the cells nucleus. The HIV weakens the immune system. The infected HIV cells convert into the messenger RNA then it is transferred outside the nucleus and is used to make more HIV infected cells.
Flu like illness is a type of sickness that has same symptoms as flu. This flu like illness is the first stage HIV infection. “The virus uses important immune system cells called CD4 cells to make copies of itself and destroys these cells in the process” ( CDC- What is HIV/AIDS 2).After this stage, then comes the asymptomatic stage and could last for ten years or longer. During this stage the disease is highly infectious because of the high levels of virus in a person’s body. After the Asymptomatic stage comes the PGL (persistent generalized ly... ... middle of paper ... ...lper T cells which protect the body from serious infectious diseases.
Once HIV enters the body, it will infect the CD4 cells and begin to use those cells as its own “HIV factory.” HIV will therefore begin to destroy your immune system leaving you susceptible to opportunistic diseases. HIV targets your immune system... What does HIV infect and how? HIV affects your immune system. Your immune system can be thought of as your body’s defense line! In which, you have millions of 'soldiers' (T-helper cells) helping you ward off almost any foreign invaders.
Which is to say that upon entering the body the virus attaches itself to a T-4 cell(T-Helper cell), which is the type of cell that marks the bad things in our body so that another cell, the B-lymphocyte, can activate the production of antibodies, which are what would normally kill the virus. So, after attaching itself to this cell it then injects its viral replicating DNA in, which then copies itself
It is said that urbanization and the change in traditional lifestyles brought HIV-1 to the cities. It then spread to other parts of the world. However, it is proven that HIV-1 has been in circulation since 1959, because antibodies to HIV-1 have been detected in stored frozen blood samples taken from individuals in Zaire in 1959 and the United States in 1968. AIDS was first officially detected in the United States in 1981 in New York and California. In 1981 doctors found what they thought was a rare form of cancer called Kaposi's Sarcoma in many males.