<http://www.ed.gov/about/inits/list/whhbcu/edlite-index.html> Wenglinsky, H.H. “Educational Justification of Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Policy Response to the U.S. Supreme Court.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 18.1 (1996): 91-013.
In the same manner, the historically black college no longer places the emphasis on vocational training it did at one time. However, there are still advocates for Washington's model although the training under discussion is in technical fields. Washington's influence can also be found in the importance often placed on action in historically black colleges, such as mine, which can undermine attempts on the part of faculty to pursue a life of the mind. At the same time, stimulating new influences emerging from African-American studies are changing and enhancing the campus culture enriching both students and faculty. My paper will conclude by considering the influence of honors programs as well as multi-ethnic and multi-cultural student bodies and faculties on the future directions of the historically black college.
Access and equity for African American students in higher education: A critical race historical analysis of policy efforts. Journal of Higher Education, 80(4), 389-414. Hernstein, R., & Murray, C. (1994). The Bell Curve. New York: Free Press Legislative Analyst Office.
Solórzano, D., Ceja, M. & Yosso, T. (2001). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. The Journal of Negro Education, 69(1/2), 60 – 73. Solórzano, D. G., and Villalpando, O. (1998).
In Struggle : SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s. United States of America, Boston: Harvard University Press. page 9 23. j. garrow,D (2004). Bearing the cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New york: HarperCollins .
The Harlem Renaissance was a pivotal point in history. While it did not break down the racial barriers associated with Jim Crow laws, the attitudes toward race did change. Most importantly, black pride became paramount as African Americans sought to express themselves artistically through art and literature, in an effort to create an identity for themselves equal to that of the white Americans (Gates Jr. and McKay). The Harlem Renaissance was the period of time between the end of World War I and the middle 1930s depression. Also called the New Negro Renaissance, it was a period in history when talented African American writers produced volumes of literary works.
With “[f]our known... ... middle of paper ... ...Sept. 1962: 1. Buckley, Thomas. “Tear Gas and Sticks Repel Wild Student Charges.” New York Times 1 Oct. 1962: 23. Cohodas, Nadine. “James Meredith and the Integration of Ole Miss.” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 16 (Summer, 1997): 112-22. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1077-3711%28199722%290%3A16%3C112%3AJMATIO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W Howard, William L.. “Meredith, James Howard.” The African American Encyclopedia.
“African American Entrepreneurship in the Suburbs: Protected Markets and Enclave Business Development.” Journal of the American Planning Association Winter 1999: 50-61. Educational Attainment in the United States - March 2000 Detailed Tables. 19 December 2000. US Census. 2 April 2001.