Shane, S. (2002). Frederick scientist's home searched in anthrax probe. Retrieved Oct. 03, 2005, from Archive of anthrax articles from The Baltimore Sun Web site: http://www.anthraxinvestigation.com/balt-sun.html. Shane, S. (2002). Security clearance with faulty resume.
However, smallpox’s ugly face reared itself just recently with the new threat of bioterrorism. Yet this will most likely not affect our society due to the huge amount of preparatory work that would need to be placed into a new smallpox outbreak. For the past twelve thousand years, Smallpox has obliterated societies with ease. Many civilizations found ways to inoculate their citizens with the least amount of symptoms through processes known as variolation and vaccination. Development of the treatment for smallpox mostly began in the end of the eighteenth century and continued through 1970s, until smallpox was eradicated in 1980.
It showed that penicillin appeared nontoxic and could fight a variety of pathogens, along with other things (1). During World War II, everyone was desperate for penicillin. In Britain, the daily bombing raids made its laboratories vulnerable to deconstruction (3). After the Japanese bombed the United States at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii in December 1941, the United States was desperate for penicillin too. The United States then opened a lab in Peoria, Illinois to produce naturally fermented penicillin at the Northern Regional Research Laboratory (3).
In addition to the September 11th attacks, the American public was also subjected to anthrax attacks during the final months of 2001. As the first biological attacks on US soil in more than a decade, these emphasized that bioterrorism is still around and that the United States is still unprepared for a large-scale biological attack ([Anonymous] 2000).
Inglesby, Thomas and Dennis, Davis. “Plague as a Biological Weapon.” Medical and Public Health Management. 2000. JAMA. 3 May 2000. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/283/17/228/ “Natural History.” Plague.
Retrieved July 30, 2006 from http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Smallpox Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006) What you should know about a smallpox outbreak. Retrieved July 30, 2006 from http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/ smallpox/basics/outbreak.asp United States Department for Health and Human Services. (2006) Smallpox: About the disease. Retrieved July 30, 2006 from http://www.hhs.gov/smallpox/About Disease.html World Health Organization.
(208) These research centers have been capable of increasing the hostility of a bacteria that causes anthrax. United States have also attempted creation of bubonic plague and tularemia bioweapons. U.S. scientists then became attentive on viral weapons, which are resistible to antibiotics. United States have grown viruses inside chick eggs as they need living cell to reproduce. United States have no history of using bioweapons, but they once almost used them.
Einstein, and several of his colleagues explained to President Roosevelt that the Nazis of Germany were trying to purify U-235, also known as the separation of Uranium. If the Nazis succeeded, they would be able to produce a weapon of mass destruction. America wanted to make sure that they kept their world dominance by producing this type of weapon first. To ensure that this goal was carried out, the Americans and British rapidly underwent the top secret Manhattan Project, also known as Tube Alloys in Great Britain. Simply put, the Manhattan Project or Tube Alloys was committed to expedient research and production that would produce a viable atomic bomb.
I will also be covering some results and life after the two bombs(were) set off. In the book “The Manhattan Project” by Jeff Hughes, during the 1930s, America was not the only country to research the secrets of nuclear transmutation. This justifies one of my points that the bombs were not a rational decision made by the Truman administration. The elements and materials needed to create the atomic bombs were not only the U.S’s call. Discoveries(that were) made in a short amount of time and having to put a team together to make the world’s first weapons of mass destruction is ... ... middle of paper ... ...the military advantage of this war.” (Compton, 1945) It was better to demonstrate the bombs in the most non-lethal (way) to gain international control.
The vaccine is “…a cell-free filtrate containing protective antigen as the principal immunogen” (Joellenbeck). The vaccine also was “…found to be 93% effective in preventing both cutaneous and inhalation anthrax” (CDC). Starting in the 1990s, the U.S. military created a vaccination program that required all active duty members to receive the anthrax vaccine due to the threat of infection in the battlefield as well as using a biological weapon in warfare. The vaccination involved a series of six shots within 18 months, followed by yearly boosters. For “…the Persian Gulf War, 150,000 America soldiers were inoculated with the anthrax vaccine in 1991” (Joellenbeck).