The black codes suggested that the blacks were still the inferior race, and they also show the reluctance the south had to change their lifestyle after the Civil War. The black codes returned political, social, and economic power to the white southerners. Black codes also affect us today. If black codes were never enforced during reconstruction, black people would have been able to be a part of the government much sooner than they did. They would have been able to vote, marry interracially, work where they wanted, and get an education.
The groundwork of how the criminal justice system is laid today, despite some major tweaks and changes along the way, still has remnants of the classical school of criminology. With people having free will, an attraction to crime, the ability to possibly lower crime through fear of reprimand or punishment, and knowing that crime must be severe, certain, and swift, the components of the classical school of criminology are very helpful and powerful (Siegel, 2011, p. 9, para. 1). Specific deterrence is a great tool to use to show the criminal just how severe a punishment can be (Siegel, 2011, p. 100, para. 1).
He makes a very good point when he says that the more knowledge black workers have the less control unions would have on them. Blassingame goes on to state that African American Studies will have a relatively short cycle because it has already been deemed a “soft program that these students can pass” (Blassingame 152) and institutions “are not seriously committed to African American Studies because they feel the demand will die out shortly” (Blassingame 153). Blacks need to broaden their horizons to be able to teach other fields such as math, biology, engineering and law. This will begin to truly integrate schools and there won’t be any unfair “separate but equal” facilities. Blassingame makes an argument saying that African American Studies shouldn’t serve as an “emotional reinforcement” (Blassingame 160), which means black students having support from other blacks to better live with racism, because there have been many blacks before them at a time when racism was more prevalent and they have succeed without it.
African Americans were subjected to slavery and discrimination and women had very little liberty. In the present, the United States is much closer to equality, yet gender and race still play a role in life’s opportunities given the high frequency of affirmative action programs; they attempt to increase the representation of minorities on college campuses and in the office, regardless of virtue. Programs of affirmative action arouse controversy because some groups view affirmative action as a catalyst for reverse discrimination whilst other groups support affirmative action as a way to diversify society and compensate for past exclusions.
Moreover, they believe that their culture and heritage are the only ones with relevance to them. In her article Errors of the Afrocentrists, Anne Wortham examines Afrocentrism and its tendencies to prioritize their heritage over those of other cultures. They don't see their culture as a part of a bigger picture and believe that their history and contributions to society should be more prominently featured. “Afrocentrists claim that the way to improve the educational achievement of black children is to improve their self-image by requiring teachers to include or emphasize the contribution of blacks in the curriculum” (Wortham, 41). Emphasizing the achievements of one group suggests that it is superior or different to another.
The dropout rate would decrease because there would be more of an incentive rather than college being almost a necessity in society this plan would’ve given high schoolers another option. On the other hand, DuBois’ idea has its ups and downs as well. With Dubois’ plan the black communities would thrive within themselves. But, they would be completely separated from other races. At the same time the demand for black teachers, doctors, and lawyers would increase exponentially.
This created true equality in education and other opportunities for black children. This influenced the way blacks viewed themselves in society. The Supreme Court understood that segregation creates inferiority in black children, and it gave them a limited level of motivation to learn, and it hinders their educational and mental development (Perlstein, 2004). In the end, it was social sciences that prevailed when the court decided to use the report of a group of social scientists to make their decision, of one which was Kenneth Clark. There were some people who believed that the Supreme Court went against established laws in the ruling because of the heavy reliance on social
He explains that individualization can be beneficial because it prevents general associations from being formed and without these associations people will feel less compelled to conform to them. Moreover, he wishes to rid society of the the victim-focused black identity because it “encourages the individual to feel that his advancement depends almost entirely of that group…[and] reimposes limitations that can have the same oppressive effect” (610). Writing “On Being Black and Middle Class” was Steele’s way to work through this issue that society has. Steele clarifies the issue and comes to the conclusion that the contradictory norms of being black and being middle class puts a strain on those who are both and the only way to lift this burden is for all of society to focus less on victimization and concentrate more on
He explains that individualization can be beneficial because it prevents general associations from being formed and without these associations people will feel less compelled to conform to them. Moreover, he wishes to rid society of the victim-focused black identity because it “encourages the individual to feel that his advancement depends almost entirely on that of the group…[and] reimposes limitations that can have the same oppressive effect” (610). Writing “On Being Black and Middle Class” was Steele’s way to work through this issue that society has. Steele clarifies the issue and comes to the conclusion that the contradictory norms of being black and being middle class puts a strain on those who are both and the only way to lift this burden is for all of society to focus less on victimization and concentrate more on
The minority student is coming from a school that was more than likely a substandard facility that provided students with out-dated textbooks and little, if any, supplies for the learning process (Brown Case – Brown v. Board). They usually live in the poorer neighborhoods and direct contact with whites is limited to supplying labor. This accounts for some of the differences between an African-American person leaving their own social community and venturing off to a desegregated school. Not only would they be mentally unprepared educationally, but they also come face to face with an unfamiliar race and their beliefs and practices. African-Americans and whites need to learn to accept each other, and each other’s culture, if both attend the same schools and have equality in education.