Conflict that arises within the team can in turn affect social-task cohesion. Relationship conflict diminishes cognitive functioning and reduction of collaborative approaches to perform tasks. When cohesion is weakened positive effects are no longer in place, in turn, making performance non-existent. Relationship conflict strongly affects group cohesion in regards to group
They found that those with higher levels of social anxiety encountered more self-focused and negative thoughts compared to those with lower levels of social anxiety. The researchers analyzed that participants exhibited a dysfunctional bias when they received their social feedback. Socially anxious individuals tended to attribute the positive feedback to others (the confederates) and not their own social performance. This may be attributed to not feeling as though they were not fully apart of the group, in other words, being singled out. The participants who were highly socially anxious did not have their underlying need met to be apart of the
Giddens criticized structural theories that forced extreme limitations on the individual and placed them in a passive role in the creation of society. He suggested that actors could think about what they were doing and adjust their actions accordingly. He defined this ability as “reflexive monitoring” which is encompassed under the topic of the knowlegability of actors. Despite this reflective thinking on the part of the actors, sometimes things still go wrong. Gidden’s view takes into account a person’s tendency to misinterpret a situation (no one is perfect).
Something I would like to further research would be the reasoning behind why some people under-estimate the costs of dual tasking. I think some people may engage in multi-tasking behavior despite the metacognition judgments about the costs of their performance, while some others could wrongly judge the cost estimates as acceptable if they don't have a clear understanding on the apparent consequences, such as a crash. Also, the behavior people engage in could be a factor of their personality (ie. thrill-seekers). A study can be conducted to see if people are less likely to engage in these “risky-behaviors” when given the option.
Create a Discussion Section Qualitative methods have become embedded in virtually every aspect of research (e.g., social science as well as sociology) (Buber, Richards, & Gadner, 2004). Qualitative research has grown in the wake of vast and relevant published writings identifying the significance of qualitative research. In the previous years, the practices were frowned upon. As qualitative research methods, did not receive the attention as quantitative research. Even universities projected a level of no confidence at one point but now comfortable with its use.
One way to measure self-worth is to have participants make a decision on how willing they are to lend a hand to a stranger or a family member after their self-worth is either attacked or given importance. There are different ways in which a person may feel as though they are lacking self-esteem or in other cases gaining some self-worth. Participants placed in a situation that is negative, where their morale is significantly lowered and encounter feeling low, will for the most part perform in a way, which allows for redemption or withdrawal of present guilt to feel better (Sachdeva et al’s, 2009). As Davidson & Barber (1995) stated, failure is a usual threat on the ability of an individual to perform on a given task after they have failed. There is a certain pressure to relieve guilt when morale is threatened.
The pressure can cause a person who conforms to make themselves better or worse. Many factors influence a person’s susceptibility to succumb to peer pressure. A person’s likelihood to be influenced can be affected by their level of self-esteem or their positive/ negative view of themselves. If a person conforms to peer pressure easily and has a low self-esteem level it may be beneficial to attain extra extrinsic support against peer pressure, especially in cases where the peer pressure influences a person negatively. This extrinsic support is reinforcement from an outside source to do or not do something.
Festinger described a cognition as any piece of knowledge a person may have about one’s attitude or behaviors. Festinger stated that when a cognition occurs that is in direct contradiction with the cognition that came before it, cognitive dissonance as occurred. The standard concept that has developed out of Festinger’s view is that cognitive dissonance occurs when a person’s action or behaviors are not consistent with the beliefs that they hold about themselves and how they should behave. This inconsistency in the person’s behaviors and their belief about themselves creates a feeling of psychological discomfort. When the psychological discomfort is great enough, a motivational state arises that compels the individual to reduce the discomfort.
In a situation where an individual lingers over how a consequence would have been different if they did things contrarily, is also known as upward counterfactual. It is where there is a higher intent to prepare, higher determination and overall enhanced performance. More so, this is a result of dissatisfaction with current performance and a motivation to improve outcome (Markman & McMullen, 2003), by coming up with new ways. It is often linked with an increment in self-efficacy through individual experiences that are usually tied with emotions of regret or disappointment. Contrariwise, downward counterfactual recognizes how a consequence may possibly be unpleasant and adverse than the actual outcome.
Ethical issues/Slant Furthermore, the popular press article offered three scholar views that did not agree with the research articles findings. These views offered a limited explanation of their disagreement and offered questionable support. For example Hurley (2012) cites Engle as identifying methodological weaknesses with the research and finding results that did not suppor Jaeggi and colleagues (2008) findings. However, the author failed to identity the specific methodological weakness and instead stated many of these have been addressed in successive articles. Overall the article presents a fair evaluation of the two sides of the