Grave's Disease: Autoimmune Disease And The Thyroid Disease

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Introduction Grave’s disease is a life threatening thyroid disease also known as toxic diffuse goiter; an autoimmune disease that allow the TSH to produce antibodies that makes the thyroid gland overproduce thyroid hormones. The Grave’s disease was identified during 1950’s based on the researched of Parry Grave and Von Basedow. They determined that the novel thyroid stimulator turned out to be an immunoglobulin G antibody. The assay used for the thyroid stimulator antibody and the epitopes involved on the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor has increased. The human genetics and environmental susceptibility was the biggest influence to the disease. The thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is now described as the primary T-cell mediated disease resulting from cytokine stimulation of orbital fibroblasts (PubMed.gov, 2003). Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. The pituitary gland stimulated the thyroid to grow and boost production of the hormone. The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid gland consists of two lobes joined in a similar band called the isthmus. The lobes are situated on the left and right side of the trachea and thyroid cartilage is below the larynx. The endocrine gland is covered with the connective tissue, which is made up of cells called follicles. The follicles are composed of simple cuboidal epithelium that produce and secrete thyroid hormones. The thyroid production is controlled by the hypothalamus, which signals the pituitary to release TSH (Cleveland Clinic, 2012). The thyroid gland produces two main hormones, which are thyroxine (T4) and tridothyronine (T3). The thyroid gland provides iodine in the body. The T3 and T4 is biologically active; once... ... middle of paper ... ... are another good source of iodine and can be consume 4 times a week. The treatment for grave’s disease and hyperthyroidism cannot guarantee that the person will not experience side effects. It is proven that it might take several treatments for a person to be completely healed but there might be a relapse eventually especially if the provided maintenance is not taken regularly. The importance of radioactive iodine therapy depends on the right dosages used from treatment and if the person is responding to it. The person receiving a lower dose of radioactive iodine are more likely to require subsequent treatment than those being treated with higher dose (Metso, Jaatienn, Huhtala, et al., 2004). The risk involve in ignoring this disease will result in long term hardship and treatment. The importance of frequent doctor’s visit will help monitor the condition.

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