Grand Theorists in Nursing: Henderson, Peplau, Levine, Watson

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Nursing theories have been a fundamental tool used to explain, guide and improve the practice of nursing. Theorists have contributed enormously to the growth of nursing as a profession. The four grand theorists I chose are Virginia Henderson, Peplau, Myra Levine and Jean Watson. These theorists have contributed tremendously in the field of nursing through their theories, and research. One thing the theorists have in common is that they are patient centered. They are all concerned on ways we can improve our responsibility to the patients, their families and the environment. They have different ideas but they are all aiming towards achieving the same goal, which is patient satisfaction and safety. Their differences are in their areas of nursing specialization, their definition of nursing and their philosophies of nursing.

Virginia Henderson Hildegard Peplau Myra Levine Jean Watson

THEORY TYPE Need Theorist Interaction Theorist Outcome Theorist Caring Theorist

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 1921- US Army of Nursing

1932- B.S Columbia University

1934- Masters Columbia University 1931- Diploma from Pottstown

1943- BA from Bennington College

1947- MA in Psychiatric Colombia University New York 1944- Diploma from Cook county School of Nursing

1949- B.S Chicago University

1962- Master’s of Science in Nursing from Wayne state university Detroit

1992- Honorary Doctorate from Loyola University 1961- Lewis Gale school of Nursing in Roanoke Virginia

1964-B S University of Colorado at Boulder

1966- M.S in psychiatric and mental health nursing

1973- Ph. D in educational psychology and counseling

Nine honorary doctoral degrees in six countries.

PHILOSOSOPHY OF NURSING Assistance with 14 daily activities or needs. ( Meleis. P...

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...nal for Human Caring11 (4), 8-16.

Mefford, L.C., & Alligood, M R. (2011). Testing a theory of health promotion for preterm infants based on Levine’s conservation model of nursing. The Journal of Theory Construction & Testing. 15(2), 41- 47.

Meleis, A. (2011). Theoretical nursing : development and progress / Afaf Ibrahim Meleis, PhD, FAAN, Margaret Bond Simon Dean, Professor of Nursing and Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/ Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.

Sitzman, K. (2007). Teaching –learning professional caring based on Jean Watson’s theory of Human Caring. International Journal For Human Caring11 (4), 8-16.

Sitzman, K, & Watson, J. (2014). Caring science, mindful practice: implementing Watson’s human caring theory, New York, NY US: Springer Publishing Co.

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