Teaching and Learning Language: Grammar and Vocabulary This essay will focus on the subject of learning and teaching languages. More specifically it will deal with two different, but intrinsically related topics. The first topic investigates the deductive and the inductive approaches to teaching grammar, and the positive and negative aspects of them both. The deductive approach is the more teacher-centered approach, where the teacher explains rules and so forth to the students, while the inductive approach is more learner-centered and encourages the student to guess rules instead of being told by the teacher. The second topic examines how vocabulary can be taught and learned differently from the much used word list method, or glosmetoden.
A deductive approach focuses on the rule that is to be taught and then how to apply it. In this approach the teacher is at the centre of the class. An inductive approach focuses more on teaching the rules in a real language context, to understand the structures of a language rather than naming them. There is debate amongst educators whether or not grammar should be taught inductively or deductively. Brown (2007) however, states that an inductive approach is more appropriate due to that it is “more in keeping with natural language acquisition” and “it allows students to get a communicative 'feel' fo... ... middle of paper ... ... instead.
This “focus on FORM” ( FonF) approach is where the grammar is taught in context and different with the “focus on FORMS” (FonFs) where the grammar is taught in isolation. In this part, the reasons why should grammar teaching used FonF approach had been discussed which the first one is because it is learner-centered and tuned to the learner’s internal syllabus. Then, this approach can be achieved in many different ways such as through design, process, reactively and preemptively. This approach also is suggested to be used if the learners of second language aim for communicative purposes since this FonF approach is focusing on communication and meaning. There is a problem had been raised in this part on how to balancing the focus on grammar and meaning and communication.
2. Recast. The teacher indirectly provides corrective feedback to the learners, but tries to reformulate the utterance. S: You is a very good teacher. (grammatical error) T: You are a good teacher.
The sole goal of learning a language is to achieve proficiency and communicative competence as they are primary skills in good communication. Achieving language skills requires a learner to grasp the basic language phonology, which includes listening, reading, writing, speaking. One can learn listening skills by carefully listening and analyzing with the view of discovering contrastive sounds of language and their variants (Molnar & Sebastian-Galles, 2014). A learner then practices and uses discriminative exercises to help them distinguish sounds, tones, and intonation patterns. In this case, the learner can then use selective attention to contrastive sounds that are difficult to grasp and use auditory repression, which involves recording troublesome sounds and replaying them until one becomes conversant with
As Brumfit (1980) sited, there are a number of advantages in students' correcting their own work after they have undergone certain steps in doing so. Firstly, when learners doing the correction instantly after the written work, this will provide and give more meaningful learning since the points studied are still fresh in the learner's mind (Guenette, 2012). Also, when students correct their classmates written work, they practice to look for mistakes in other students' work. This step enables the learners to identify mistakes in their own work (Guenette, 2012). Furthermore, using correction codes in the classroom is a constructive way for the reason that it encourages the students to become active learners rather than writing drafts and give them to the teacher to correct the drafts for them (Burnett & Mandel, 2010).
Error Analysis is a type of linguistic study that focuses on the errors learners make. Error Analysis is one of the most influential theories of second language acquisition. According to Corder (1967), Error Analysis (EA) has two aspects: one theoretical and another applied. The theoretical aspect is to understand what and how a learner learns when he studies second language (L2). The applied aspect is to enable the learner to learn more efficiently by using the knowledge of his dialect for pedagogical purposes.
Deductive approach focuses on the teacher telling students how to learn. According to Ans, “The deductive method is often criticized because: a) it teaches grammar in an isolated way; b) little attention is paid to meaning; c) practice is often mechanical” (Ans, 2013, 3). While there are negatives to the deductive approach, this approach works well with highly motivated students and students wanting to learn more. Inductive approach uses many examples to help the student learn the concept. In practice, the students learn the concept through understanding, and decide for themselves what they think the concept is.
Strategy can be understood as a ‘means of achieving a goal’. There are different kinds of strategies and they differ from person to person. Strategies assist language learners as well as language teachers. It is essential for classroom teachers to be aware of different strategies employed by individual learners. Strategies can be talked about mainly in two ways.
Strickland (2005) defined comprehension as the “end product of meaning making” and asserted that teachers cannot fully teach comprehension because “readers themselves bring meaning to the text they read” (p. 85). Similarly, Serravallo (2015) explained that readers can interpret the same text differently because of their unique prior knowledge and experiences. It is important for teachers to realize that students can have different perspectives about the text. Some teachers believe that only their interpretations are correct, but the students’ understandings of the texts may be just as