Governance and Policy Networks

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different governance process. The fragmentation of state government is not caused by the rising of new governance; rather it becomes a process which adopted to tackle the diversified situation of the government. This situation of discursive power and resources shared by many actors from both public and private sectors, governmental and societal, has pushed a new process of governance. Therefore, this idea is quite different from Rhodes, which is minimizing the government role. Instead, it reemphasizes the importance of government in legitimising various actors to ensure their accountability. I think this can be seen as government empowers those actors to deal with lower level of problems and increase the efficiency, in order to take into account different interests of local people, communities, as much it can. In Gerry Stocker’s paper, there are five propositions for governance as theory with the critics about each of them. First, he has argued that governance means a complex set of institutions and actors that are drawn from but also beyond government. This means that some of the organizations and institutions of government have been taken out and work independently. The power has flown to the inter-governmental and local actors. It is also including the involvement of private sectors of society in governance. Therefore, I think the debate in this perspective is still remained in the relationships between different actors and government, and the problem of this proposition is that how the actors can be legitimated in the governing process. The second idea is from the perspective of responsibilities of different actors in handling social and economic issues. And the boundaries between different actors in exercising their power an... ... middle of paper ... ...deas, such as the change of governance traditions. Therefore, to understand the policy networks, one cannot ignore the social context and cultural influences to those actors. By introducing the concept of situated agent, decentred theory assumes that everyone in the networks is situated by the context and they are depend what they believe. Traditions are interpreted as understandings someone receives during socialization. It has strong impact on the actions conducted by individual. From the government perspective, traditions can be understood as the history of government. So institutions and organizations will make decisions according to those traditions. However, the traditions only effective at the beginning, but cannot determine the whole process. This is a theory that seems to treat networks more like human which has the strong relationship with social context.
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