The locations of the two types of cathedrals also contributed toward the change between Romanesque and Gothic, as well as the power of the relics and the community to raise funds for the Gothic cathedrals. There are several reasons the architecture of the cathedral changed from Romanesque to Gothic in the Middle Ages. The Romanesque period lasted from 1000 to 1200 AD. Today's France was the center of Romanesque architecture and the birthplace of one of the most beutiful features of medieval architecture, the ambulatory with radiating chapels. "Romanesque is the name we give to christian architecture in Western Europe from the end of the Roman Empire to about the close of the twelfth century.
Works Cited Anderson, William. The Rise of the Gothic. New Hampshire: Salem House Publishers, 1985. Calkins, Robert G. Medieval Architecture in Western Europe: from A.D. 300 to 1500. New York: Oxford University Press, USA, 1998.
The Gothic Art movement was not just a style of art but an extremely influential period containing its own complex history. The term is used to describe buildings and objects whose forms are based upon a range of characteristics from the middle of the 12th to the end of the 15th century. Gothic style was a development of the Romanesque yet it was Renaissance humanists who first used it as a disparaging term to describe what they saw as the barbaric architecture. With Gothic art being viewed through so many different perspectives it is deemed quite difficult to appropriately define what Gothic means in postmodern society today. It provided a new focus for the representation of nature and one major area within Gothic Art that distinguishes it from the ordinary is the symbolic elements used to create the art and in particular their infamous architecture.
The major styles are considered as Carolingian (800-900 AD); Ottonian (1000s); Romanesque (1000s-1100s); Gothic (late 1100s-1400s). While Romanesque is considered as the architectural style which preceded the Gothic, many of the distinct Romanesque features found within the great cathedrals of Europe were lost to the greater Gothic movement. However, many Romanesque features, as well as the earlier Carolingian reside within the Gothic-built monuments. The Romanesque name is deliberate in its direct relation to the styling designs found in Rome and there most distinctive feature is their massiveness as opposed to the much more thin monuments of the Gothic era which followed. An important structural development during the Romanesque period was the origin of the vault.
Austin, Texas: Haverford College Press, 2008. Clery, E.J. Introduction to: The Castle of Otranto: A Gothic Story. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Howells, Coral Ann.
Beginning in 700 CE, architecture in Europe began to change dramatically in order “to recreate the glory of the past.” (Tripathi) This influx of support led leaders of churches to build structures that reflected the new prosperity and holiness of the Christian religion. Much grander buildings were required instead of the poorer quality shacks made of inferior stone, mortar, and rubble. Churches were seen as the most sacred of places as they were supposed to hold religious relics. The Romanesque style of architecture was predominant in Europe during the 11th and 12th century CE. The style is identified by its use of rounded arches and bulky frames and obvious inspiration from Roman architecture.
London: Penguin Popular Classics, 1998. Miles, Robert. Gothic Writing: 1750-1820: A Genealogy. London: Routledge, 1993. Morse, David.
Many of the reasons for the change in styles had a lot to do with society and the changes it faced. There was a greater intensity occurring in piety and literature. The Gothic style embodied this new urban society. Romanesque and Gothic shared similar characteristics, but Gothic architecture was a greater departure from its previous predecessor. The Romanesque architecture style, which occurred during the late 11th century to the middle 12th century, literally means “roman-like” architecture.
With a new emphasis on the science, people like Philippo Brunelleschi were accomplishing great feats of artistic and architectural design. The new Renaissance “style” that emerged during this period called upon the classical roots of ancient Greece and Rome but new scientific understanding and a stronger emphasis on the individual also influenced the works created during this period.Bibliography Rice Jr., Eugene F.; Anthony Grafton. The Foundations of Early Modern Europe, 1460-1559. W. W. Norton & Company. New York, NY, 1993.