In F. Cullen & R. Agnew (Eds. ), Criminological Theory: Past to Present 4th ed. (pp. 190). New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Agnew, R. (2011).
This school of thought focuses on ways in which power affects the international arena by assessing how states influence each other as the most important actors in world politics. Realpolitik pays attention to political power matters such as military preparedness and industrial capacities, ignoring issues of morality, ideology and other social aspects as reasons for actions of states. In this way, realism sets up a strong framework for understanding short-term, interstate relationships, yet leaves the comprehension of deeper, long-term issues weak in the background. Power politics maintains that human nature is generally selfish. This belief comes from their understanding of the trends in international relations.
Wolfers (1962) notes that it as an ambiguous concept because there is no universal understandings of what constitutes national security. Because of this, theories of International Relations have been important in explaining states’ motives and how they go about maximising state security, if it is their prime objective at all. This essay will first analyse the concept of national security through realism, which focuses on military power. It then assesses the liberal understanding, which espouses cooperation through liberal internationalism and broadening the concept of national security. Then, the constructivist position discusses the roles of political actors in placing emphasis on certain security issues to heighten it to a national security concern.
In international relationships however sovereignty does not supply security therefore a state must vie with its neighboring states to accomplish it. This can lead to a power struggle to ensure that state’s people can live in security.  A second key point of realism is survival. Survival to realists is rather simple; the state with the most power stands a better likelihood of survival. Naturally it is believed that survival is the definitive objective of realism.
He looks beyond the explicit clash of interest and Imperialist gains and endeavours to outline the implicit human motivations of fear, glory, and honour. The explicit motivations made war a continual threat; the implicit motivations and human interactions made it inevitable. It is this discussion within Thucydides' "history" that realists have taken as proof of his status as a founding father of realism; indeed, casual reading of the "History" may suggest this to be the case. However, it is my hypothesis that Thucydides was more optimistic of man, society and the possibility for peace. It is my intention to discuss Thucydides' assumptions of war and human na... ... middle of paper ... ...sm, the security dilemma is never fully advanced as an adequate explanation of Athenian imperialism.
Further, the balance of power theory is premised on the assumption that due to concentrations and imbalances in material and military capabilities among nations and powers, there arises the need for this inequality in power to be put in check and an equilibrium restored so that the major powers within the international system can survive (Fromkin 111). The methods used by the great powers in restoring the balances include forming counterbalancing alliances, internal military security buildup, emulation, and partition. This paper examines and explains the balance of power theory and how it can be used to account for the origin of the WWI. It argues that the need to adjust power due to power differences in Europe is one of the contributors and origins of the First World War. According to Fromkin, the origins of the First World War may be attributed mainly to the balance of power that was taking place in Europe at the time the war began (215).
Realism is the contrast of the Idealist conception that society can change on the foundation of an idea. The “Clash of Civilizations” by Samuel Huntington is a brilliant illustration that exhibits the power of ideas that has vastly influenced both foreign policies of countries, but also the discipline of International Relations. Samuel Huntington's “the clash of civilizations,” is based on the hypothesis: “In the post-Cold War world the most important distinctions among people are not ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural”. (Huntington, 1996, p. 21) Huntington recognizes the significance of the realist approach that the nation states will stay as the most influential actors in international relationships, but he refutes that nations’ interests can be described without any reference to culture (Huntington, 1996, p. 34).
Introduction In my essay I would like to examine the idea of Cold War being an inevitable event or an events which could have been avoided. The end of World War II was the key element, because it did created freshly minted world with the US and the USSR standing against each other as two superpowers trying to surpass one another. Another important factor was their nature, which I would like to examine more closely from the USSR point of view and of course from the US point of view. I consider understanding the nature of both countries vital in order to understand the whole meaning of the Cold War, because there is no clear definition whether the Cold War was an inevitable event or not. Both sides will blame each other for being responsible for the increased tension in Europe that lasted for more than 45 years, but the truth is there is no clear guilty party, it all depends on your point of view and in this essay, I will present my perspective and my opinion regarding this topic.
Benjamin Ginsberg, “Polling and the Transformation of Public Opinion”. Allan Cigler and Burdett Loomis, American Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Miflin Company, 1999, pp. 124 – 137. Charles Kenney, “They’ve Got Your Number”.
Vol.96.4. Pg 901-905. Taylor, P () the United Nations and International Order Taylor, P and Curtis, D. (2006) ‘The United Nations’ in Baylis, J. Smith, S. and Owens, P. (ed) The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, New York: Oxford UniversityPress.pg 406-424 (first published in 2001). SIPRI (2008) Yearbook: Armament, Disarmament and International Security. New York: Oxford Universty Press.