A right is an individual’s entitlement to freedom of choice and well-being. We have the right to live without interference from others and government, free will. A legal right is the entitlement that derives from a legal standpoint that allows someone to act in a specific way and for others to react in specified ways. For instance, the U.S. Constitution states all citizens have the right to the freedom of speech and the right to bear arms. These rights guaranteed to us as citizens of the United States of America.
This synergistic-reflective-equilibrium description should then be useful not only in giving a fuller understanding of how moral decisions ought to be made, but also how moral philosophy can be united into a pluralistic collective whole. I. The Synergistic-Reflective-Equilibrium Model The synergistic-reflective-equilibrium model is the position in which the justification of what is right or wrong is done by using neither a pure theory model, nor a pure intuition model. The synergistic-reflective-equilibrium model is a back-and-forth process—starting with particulars and going to the general and back to the particulars and so on and so forth. This is a constant process that never really comes to closure as new decisions are constantly having to be made.
The priority and absoluteness of rights is often gist for ethical debates. I consider these issues from the perspective of my ethical theory, which I call the "ethics of social consequences." The ethics of social consequences is one means of satisfying non-utilitarian consequentialism. It is characterized by the principles of positive social consequences, humanity, human dignity, legality, justice, responsibility, tolerance as well as moral obligation. I analyze Gewirth’s position regarding the absoluteness of rights as well as Nagel’s opinion that rights enjoy priority forever.
II Philosophical ethics is the integration of metaethics and normative ethics?the attempt to come to an integrated understanding of both. Given our current perspective, how can we view the philosophical ethics of Mill, Kant, Aristotle, Nietzsche, and the ethics of care? III For Mill, the question is what is the relation between his (metaethical) empirical naturalism and his (normative) qualitatively hedonist value theory and his utilitarian moral theory? One place we can see Mill?s empiricism is his treatment, in Chapter III, of the question of why the principle of utility is ?binding?, how it can generate a moral obligation. Compare Mill?s treatment of this question with Kant?s treatment of the question of why the CI is binding in Chapter III of the Groundwork.
There are three types of justice that I want to consider. According to the first conception, this is usually called cosmopolitanism. Nagel’s “The Problem of Global Justice”, states that cosmopolitanism is a form of justice that develops from an equal concern or a duty of fairness that we owe in principle to all our fellow human beings. Also, and there are institutions to which standards of justice can be applied to fulfill that duty. But the moral basis for the requirements of justice that should govern those states is universal in scope: it is a concern for the fairness of the terms on which we share the world with anyone (Nagel, 2005, 119-120).
Rawls holds the ideal political theory. I believe that this is in fact the best principle in which we should live. When viewing justice as fairness, this outcome will be the most favorable for all parties involved. In this society everyone benefits, so even if there are slight inequalities, the end result will come out better than if there was complete equality. So for this to work, then even the least advantaged must profit from the inequalities.
In addition, people should get the same, or be treated the same, or be treated as equals, in some respect (Arneson, 2013) a. Description: Egalitarianism is a trend in political philosophy. Egalitarian doctrines tend to rest on a background idea that all human persons are equal in fundamental worth or moral status. (Arneson, 2013). i.
“Rawls also emphasizes publicity as an aspect of fairness. In what he calls a well-ordered society the principles that order the basic structure are publicly known to do so, and the justifications for these principles are knowable by and acceptable to all reasonable citizens. The idea behind publicity is that since the principles for the basic structure will be coercively enforced, they should stand up to public scrutiny. The publicity condition requires that a society's operative principles of justice be neither esoteric nor ideological screens for deeper power relations: that in “public political life, nothing need be hidden.”
Also, when speaking of political integrity, he makes two important background assumptions. These background assumptions are that we all, as a society, believe in political fairness and that we know that different people hold different view about moral issues that they all treat as of great importance. From these assumptions and principles, Dworkin presents an interesting view of political compromise in the form of checkerboard laws. Checkerboard laws are laws that treat si... ... middle of paper ... ...xplained under either current ideal of fairness or justice, explaining his insistence for including political integrity as an additional ideal. Dworkin argues that society values political integrity for its own sake because of the resulting ability to have internal harmony without direct compromise.
Introduction The term ethics s defined as a set of moral principles that a person or society sets to govern their behaviors (Iqbal, Bhatti, & Zaheer, 2013). This definition is concomitant with the idea of knowing what is right and wrong and making a conscious decision to follow what is right (Paul & Elder, 2006). Conversely, a system of ethics is a set of instructions that govern an organization or particular social structure. This includes a combination of interrelated values that are devised as the most appropriate mode of conduct for a particular social structure (Paul & Elder, 2006). Obligations to Society My personal code of ethics is closely related to utilitarianism.