Glaucoma in the United States Over the Last Ten Years

explanatory Essay
5054 words
5054 words

Glaucoma in the United States Over the Last Ten Years This research paper examines glaucoma over the age of 40 in the United States, in the last 10 years. Knowing the fact that glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the United States leads us to choose this subject for research. Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that gradually steals sight without warning and often without symptoms. Vision loss is caused by damage to the optic nerve. This nerve acts like an electric cable with over a million wires and is responsible for carrying the images we see to the brain. The two main types of glaucoma are open angle glaucoma, or primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and angle closure glaucoma. Currently, there is no cure for glaucoma. Glaucoma is a chronic disease that must be treated for life. However, much is happening in research that makes us hopeful a cure may be realized in our lifetime. There is exciting work being conducted by scientists all over the world in the areas of genetics, neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. These areas of study deal with the origins and pathology of glaucoma as opposed to managing symptoms. A cure is on the way. Glaucoma over the Age of Forty in the United States The term "glaucoma" encompasses a group of eye diseases, not a single entity. Glaucoma is described broadly in terms of aqueous fluid drainage through the trabecular meshwork, the major outflow pathway. There are two main types: angle closure glaucoma and open angle glaucoma. Open angle glaucoma is far more common in the United States. The American Academy of Ophthalmology defines primary angle closure glaucoma as "An appositional or synechial closure of the anterior chamber angle caused by relative pupillary block in the absence of other causes of angle closure". The American Academy of Ophthalmology defines primary open angle glaucoma as a "Multifactorial optic neuropathy in which there is a characteristic acquired loss of optic nerve fibers". Classifying glaucoma broadly into angle closure glaucoma or open angle glaucoma is helpful from both a diagnostic and pathophysiological perspective. Problem Statement In the United States, approximately 2.2 million people age 40 and older have glaucoma, and of these, as many as 120,000 are blind due to the disease. The number of Americans with glaucoma is estimated to increase to 3.3 million by the year 2020. Each year, there are more than 300,000 new cases of glaucoma and approximately 5,400 people suffer complete blindness.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the united states.
  • Explains that glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the united states, so every little bit of information is very important.
  • Explains that 2,520 medicare patients agreed to participate in a prospective study and have their eyes tested. the presence of bilateral visual insight less than 20/40 increased from 4% in those 40+ years old to 16%
  • Explains that glaucoma is a common reason for patients to visit their ophthalmologist in the united states.
  • Explains the prevalence of glaucoma in the beaver dam eye study in wisconsin, where the sample was predominantly caucasian.
  • Explains that the map above reflects estimated state-by-state prevalence rates of vision impairment, including blindness. twenty-two states and the district of columbia have rates above the national average.
  • Opines that the field of ophthalmology and glaucoma holds much promise for preventive and treatment modality improvement in the future.
  • Opines that harmon, g k, (with intrator, nancy). what your doctor may not tell you about.
  • Describes munoz, west, rubin, and west's causes of blindness and visual impairment in a study.
  • Cites schappert sm's office visits for glaucoma in the united states, 1991-1992.
  • Cites simmons, st, cioffi, ga, gross, rl, myers,js, netland, pa, samples, jr, and al.
  • Explains tielsch, j.m., the epidemiology and control of open angle glaucoma: a population-based perspective.
  • Explains that glaucoma encompasses a group of eye diseases, not one entity.
  • Explains that glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness among african americans and hispanics in the united states.
  • Explains that glaucoma is an abnormal condition of elevated pressure within the eye caused by obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.
  • Explains that poag is a chronic, bilateral disease characterized by progressive damage of the optic nerve, with an adult onset.
  • Explains that glaucoma clinical trials were developed and performed to help physicians better manage the condition.
  • Explains that glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the united states, and a major public health problem in africa.
  • Concludes that the prevalence of oag in beaver dam was comparable to other caucasian populations.
  • Explains that the age-adjusted prevalence rate for african americans compared with white americans was 4 to 5 times higher underscoring a substantially higher risk of oag.
  • Describes a population-based study of hispanic subjects. oag was defined using threshold visual field defect and optic disc damage parameters.
  • Explains that genetic research is taking a more prominent role in the delivery of evidence-based medical interventions.
  • Opines that the science of genetics is growing at a rapid pace, and our ability to understand the implications it has on our society must also grow with it.
  • Explains the american academy of ophthalmology's basic clinical science course on glaucoma terminology, epidemiology, and heredity.
  • Cites johnson dh, brandt, jd, and moorehead, h.b.
  • Explains the national eye institute's prevalence rate for people aged 40 and over by state. eye drops may delay or prevent glaucoma in african americans at higher risk.
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