Gingivitis Essay

715 Words3 Pages
Over time as individuals age and are faced with access to care issues they may begin to neglect their oral health. As time passes between dental hygiene cleanings or dentist visits the presence of oral disease may begin to increase. Gingivitis is the beginning stage of oral disease. Gingivitis is inflammation of the gingiva. The lack of good oral hygiene can lead to gingivitis. Gingivitis can be painful and result in gums at are red, swollen, and prone to bleeding. With proper oral hygiene for a period of time gingivitis can be reversed. Periodontal disease is an infection of the gingiva and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease increases in prevalence and severity as people age. Periodontal disease is precursored by gingivitis. Periodontal…show more content…
The inflammatory response is a nonspecific response to cellular injury and bacterial invasion. Inflammation is the primary defense in early gingivitis. Biofilm can initiate an inflammatory response if it is left undisturbed for as little as seventy two hours. Redness and swelling are two of the cardinal signs of inflammation and can be observed clinically in gingivitis. Histamine is released by mast cells and responsible for the redness and swelling of tissues. Histamine causes both an increase in vascularity and permeability of blood vessels at the site of injury. Swelling may occur in response to the accumulation of fluid at a specific site. The inflammatory response includes cellular components of the immune system polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are crucial to the cellular immune response. Polyporphonuclear leukocytes are the first cells that arrive at an inflammatory site. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes arrive at the site via chemotaxis, and begin to phagocytize bacteria. As the disease continues and the inflammatory reaction is not strong enough to subside the bacterial infection the immune response is further
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