Typically, the infection occurs in people after 30 years old, often much later in life. The most basic way to suspect poor dental health is persistent bad breath. This indicates disease, poor dental health, or decay. Swollen, red gums, sensitive, or bloody gums are a sign of irritated or infected gums. Painful chewing and sensitive teeth indicate nerve exposure.
Acute inflammation is an immediate response to trauma; in which the body fights against foreign bodies and heal wounds. Inflammatory mediators are released from the cell, causing immune response. Vasolidation is another stage in acute inflammation; it causes increased blood flow and thus increases permeability of the blood vessels, which then result to the release of plasma protein into the affected tissues (Spector & Willoughby, 1963). It could be characterised by the redness, swelling and increased heat in the affected area. After vasolidation, the inflammatory cells penetrate the injured tissue because of increased permeability.
Recognition via TLRs on dentricic cells causes signal cascades within the gut to induce cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial factors (Fig 2). Commensal causes the nuclear factor B(NF-B) to inhibits NF-B kinase and MAPK via TLR4 attaching to lipossacharides on gram negative bacteria . Signals allow for rapid post translational protein modifications. This prohibits tissue damaging immune responses to commensal bacteria and allows their survival and the death of pathogenic bacteria. A loss in TLR signalling can cause inflammation when the epithelium is infected by pathogenic bacteria.
The immune system is a fascinating structure it defends the body against foreign invaders like bacteria, viruses and parasites. There are two primary forms that make up the immune system they are, innate and adaptive systems. Both the innate and adaptive system plays a large role in the immune system. The innate is the primary system to defend against foreign materials and the adaptive is the secondary system that responds to specific issues. The difference between the innate and the adaptive systems are the innate consists of: • Epithelial barriers • Phagocytes • Dendritic cells • Plasma proteins • NK cells The first sign an infection will take the innate from 0 to 12 hours to begin its attack.
These various receptors function together to initiate response from the immune system. To avoid being phagocytised, the bacteria have developed strategies to dysfunction the phagosomes. In an experiment, David G. Russell observed that the infected phagosomes resembled m... ... middle of paper ... ...necrosis. Granuloma is an object that is generated and gathered around the site of infection. It is composed of a group of macrophages with fused plasma membranes.
Gingivitis is a type of periodontal disease and is when the gums are inflamed. The gums in the teeth destroy the tissues because of the inflammation and infection known as periodontal disease (MedlinePlus n. pag.). Gingivitis typically precedes periodontitis but it is important to understand that not all gingivitis progresses to periodontitis (“Gum Disease” n. pag.).
If you have diabetes, you probably know that uncontrolled blood sugar levels can negatively affect various organs in your body, including the heart, kidneys, nerves and eyes; however, did you know that inconsistent blood glucose levels can also lead to periodontal disease? Periodontal disease often leads to dental pain which can make chewing difficult. There is also the possibility of tooth loss. Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease (gum disease) is an infection of the bone and gum. If you are diabetic, you are at greater risk of developing infections, including periodontal disease.
Noma causes tissue deterioration. The gums and lining of the cheeks become inflamed and develop ulcers that develop bad smelling drainage, that cause bad breath and foul smelling skin. The infection spreads through the skin, and the tissues in the lips and cheeks deteriorate. Eventually destruction of the bones cause deformity and tooth loss. If left untreated, the disease can become fatal.
As the disease progresses, these symptoms become more severe. Physically a sufferer may experience difficulties in swallowing and chewing, along with experiencing jerky motions and abnormal facial expressions, with the eventual loss of use of their limbs. Dementia, which is a loss of memory over time, sudden aggression, and development of alcoholism, are some of the many cognitive effects a person with Huntington’s Chorea will suffer (Wyndbrandt, 171). Since the symptoms of HD are so severe and do not show until adulthood, and the disease is acquired at conception, it is hard to discover a positive diagnosis of Huntington’s Chorea before it is too late. Although the possibility of pre-symptomatic testing is available, few choose to do so, becaus... ... middle of paper ... ...a cure, drugs may alleviate some of the symptoms associated with the jerky movements.
But when it gets past the power of WBCs, antibiotics are prescribed to prevent permanent damage to the body, permanent internal damage, sepsis or even death. The first antibiotic was Penicillin and this is a big component of modern day antibiotic medications such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and benzylpenicillin. Antibiotic resistance is when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth due to the bacterial organism changing its genetic makeup. In other words, the bacteria become resistant and continue to multiply despite the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic. When a disease becomes antibiotic resistant, it is often considered incurable, and can pose a serious public health threat as a consequence.