This paper examines the previous research on the development, influences, and effects of children’s beliefs about learning. Theories of Intelligence According to Dweck & Leggett (1988) children possess different “theories” about the nature of intelligence. Some believe that intellectual ability is more of an unchangeable or a fixed entity. While others believe that intelligence as a malleable quality that can be developed. Research has shown that students of both theories showing equal intellectual ability, their beliefs about intelligence shape the way they respond to academic challenge.
They were asked, “What should be the test given to children thought to possibly have learning disabilities, that might place them in a spe... ... middle of paper ... ...al age then multiplying by 100 (Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100 = IQ) This pertains to current life because the tests that were formed back then are being taken now by everyone who goes to school. These tests are now a regular part of life and judge if students should go into harder classes, what book level they should be reading at, and how intelligent a person is overall. My thoughts were that because of this discovery psychologist after him were able to expand on his research and make today what it is. Other people might say that it isn’t possible to know how intelligent a brain is from just one test but really the test is just estimation and shouldn’t be taken literally. Currently Alfred Binet works it still being used to base current intelligence tests of off.
This was used to separate the “dull” children with a lower mental age and the “bright” children who had a higher one. Eventually, Lewis Terman revised Binet's test and produced the Stanford-Binet variant, which is widely used. William Stern derived the intelligence quotient, which is mental age divided by chronological age times 100. 2. Psychologists do not agree on a single definition for intelligence, but the common similarities in its definitions is that intelligence is the ability to learn from abilities, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
There are a couple of well known intelligence tests that have set the standard for what we think are the correct ways to measure intelligence. There are the Stanford-Bbinet, Weschler scales, Scholastic Assessment, and Intelligence Quotient tests. The Stanford-Binet test was created around early 1900 when Alfred Binet had to make a way to split students who profited from regular classroom direction and others that needed special teaching in different schools. With the help of one of his students, Binet created and administered the test to 50 normal children from age 3 to 11. From the results of this test, Binet figured out the norm for mental age.
Every person is different and their intelligence is as unique as they are, no two people share the same intelligence. There is no universal definition attached to intelligence. This is due to the highly debatable topic surrounding the concept of whether there is only one single type of intelligence or if there are multiple intelligences. There are currently two major theories of study being devoted to the nature and notion of intelligence. The thought that intelligence comes from one common factor, otherwise known as the g-factor, is supported by a variety of psychologists including Spearman and Galton.
Controversially, progressive individuals as stated in the book School: The Story of American Public Education, argued that “public schools were doing as well as ever and meeting the needs of a larger more diverse student population” (Ravitch, 69). These IQ supporters believed that the diversification of schools in the United Stated could be promoted and helped through these IQ testing. This way the schools could identify the needs of the students and “help them” while also guiding them to professions in which their intellectual capabilities would flourish. This however also created a set back as students were being labeled as less intelligent than others, creating racial, economic and cultural
The problem that arises is the questions do not mean the same thing in every culture, so it becomes difficult to analyze the intelligence of more than one culture with the use of the same test. An ethnically direct meaning of intelligence is to comprehend the ideas behind the testing of intelligence and its effectiveness (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Gardner came up with the development of multiple intelligence demonstrating that intelligence of humans is not an accurate account of an individual’s abilities. Howard Gardner’s theory shows how the conventional aspects of intelligence are vague. He discovered eight ideas of intelligence, which were body-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, musical, interpersonal, visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, intra personal and natural intelligences.
Aptitude tests are designed to predict how a student will perform in the future. For example, the SAT predicts performance in the first year of college. Standardized tests give educators a standard measure or “yardstick” because such a large number of students across the country take the same test. These tests are used to tell how well school programs are doing or to give a picture of the skills and abilities of students. Standardized tests; however, are problematic at all ages and levels of schooling.
The processes themselves are immensely difficult to measure directly, if possible at all. However, one may gain insight into these mental processes through observing the covert products, such as haemodynamic and electrophysiological changes and the overt products, such as behaviour, accuracy, response times and eye movements. The scope of this essay is to review the evidence that demonstrates exactly how eye movements reflect cognitive processes. Due to the vastness of the topic, this essay will focus on only one of the aforementioned cognitive processes. There has been much attention and extensive literature and reviews regarding eye movements as a tool for understanding the processes of reading, visual perception, visual search and attention (e.g., Rayner, 1998; Liversedge and Findlay, 2000; Schutz, Braun and Gegenfurtner, 2011).
Education of Gifted Children Started in the 1970’s, America’s Gifted & Talented programs are used to enhance the curriculum of students included in either category in order to challenge and strengthen their unique abilities. These students are usually provided a separate class with specialized lessons in all areas and a teacher with a special degree in gifted education. I feel that it is important that the teacher was a gifted student who would know what the students must face as "above average" members of their school. The job market for gifted education offers a wide range of opportunity and gifted teachers are needed all over the country. One of the earliest programs for gifted and talented students was set up in 1974, at The Old Donation Center, in Virginia Beach.