15% of the time chronic hypertension is secondary to a primary problem-that is a renal disorder, heart disease, endocrine disorder or some other condition is the cause of the hypertensive disease. Women with chronic hypertension who become pregnant are in high risk. Because of arterial narrowing the blood supply to the uterus is compromised and growth and oxygenation of the fetus are jeopardized. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are also likely to develop, with characteristic tissue swelling and proteinuria. In extreme full flown eclampsia ( convulsions or coma) may occur.
It has affected 18 percent of pregnant woman worldwide. ( Healthline,2014).Women who are already diagnosed with diabetes think that they are at high risk for Gestational diabetes, but this could rarely be the case. The cause of this complication is still unknown but hormones can be the main factor in why it develops. When a woman is pregnant she produces more excessive hormones, In time the hormones may interfere with the action of insulin and without insulin working properly blood glucose levels are increased causing gestational diabetes(healthline,2014). Various ethnicities of women who develop Gestational diabetes are Caucasion, African American, Hispanic, and Asian and Pacific Islanders.
This condition is caused by changes in a pregnant woman’s metabolism and hormone production where the body does not produce enough insulin to deal with the increased blood sugar of pregnancy. Symptoms of GD can include excessive thirst, more frequent urination, vaginal infections, and high blood pressure. GD almost always disappears once the baby is born and is usually not an indicator of the child developing diabetes later in life. While a woman is generally safe from complications from gestational diabetes, there are some very big risks to the baby. If gestational diabetes goes undiagnosed, there is a greater risk of stillbirth.
Type 1 is usually caused by one not having enough insulin. Type 2 can be caused by genes, obesity, and insulin resistance. This form is the most common. Gestational diabetes is caused by the change of hormones during a pregnancy and possibly genes. Although this type of diabetes disappears after a woman’s pregnancy, she is at risk to have type 2 diabetes later in life.
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Although it usually goes away after the baby is born, it does bring health risks for both the mother and baby. When you’re pregnant, pregnancy hormones make it harder for insulin to move glucose from your blood into the cells. If your body can’t produce enough insulin to overcome the effects of insulin resistance, you’ll develop gestational diabetes. (IHC, 2013) Any woman might develop gestational diabetes during her pregnancy.
Pregnancy is affected by diabetes Mellitus. Many changes that take place during pregnancy make controlling blood sugar more difficult for a woman who has diabetes. Changes in the levels and types of hormones produced during pregnancy can cause insulin resistance, increasing the body’s requirements for insulin. Poorly controlled diabetes may endanger the fetus as well as the woman. With proper adjustments in insulin the risks lessen.
Gestational diabetes is a disorder characterized by impaired ability to metabolize carbohydrates, usually caused by a deficiency of insulin resistance, occurring in pregnancy (Seibel, 2009). After the baby is delivered the disorder disappears but in few cases it has returned as type 2 diabetes. There are many factors that increase the risk in women to acquire the disorder, being overweight prior to becoming pregnant, a family history of diabetes, having too much amniotic fluid, and having sugar in your urine are just some of them (Namak, 2010). During a normal pregnancy tissue resistance to insulin is present, and weight gain and presence of placental hormones can contribute to this insulin resistance ( Gutierrez, 2007). Pregnant women require two to three times more insulin than a woman who is not pregnant, and the insulin production and increased tissue resistance causes this glucose intolerance or increased blood sugar levels or gestational diabetes ( Gutierrez, 2007).
The immune system attacks the insulin producing cells in the pancreas resulting into hormone deficit. This means that individuals with type one diabetes mellitus have to be supplemented with insulin as failure to supplement may lead to death. Type two is characterized by high levels of blood glucose which is referred to as hyperglycemia. It is the most common type of diabetes accounting for 90 to 95 % of diabetic cases. Gestational diabetes affects pregnant mothers and is known to disappear after birth.
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition that affects approximately 1 in 200 pregnancies. (Tamay, 2011) HG is a classified as severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy that results in dehydration and nutrition deficiency. (Davidson, 2012) This disorder, if not recognized early, can result in devastating complications to the mother and fetus. It is important to provide early patient education and treatment to reduce the risk of complications, hospitalization, and adverse psychological problems. (H.E.R.
3. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as carbohydrate intolerance, which occurs during pregnancy. Occurs in approximately three percent of pregnancies, and usually disappears after pregnancy. Women with GDM are at higher risk for having diabetes in the future. GDM is associated with increased risk of morbidity.