Historians such as Frank Eyck believe that unification of Germany 'was a natural and desirable development.' In many ways this is true. From 1790s - 1814 French domination helped to modernize and consolidate Germany, thus sparking the first upsurge of German nationalism. When Napoleon defeated the most defiant state, Prussia, they were so distraught about their defeat that they started thorough reforms. This meant that smaller states who suffered under French rule started to turn to Prussia in their common hatred of the French.
During the upheavalå·¨è®Š, such French ideals of liberty, equality and fraternityåšæ„› were spread to Germans. Besides, a varietyå„ç¨® of Napoleon's reforms like those in education, trade, administration, taxation and laws had encouraged the rise of middle class who then became the backboneéª¨å¹¹ of the German unification movement. b. Nationalism: Napoleon grouped all Germans into a big state, i.e. the Confederation of the RhineèŠèŒµæ²³é‚¦è¯.
Bismarck Claims The Credit For German Unification In the early 19th Century, the growth of nationalism and the growing economic strength of the German states was very great. The German's shared a common identity in the form of language race and heritage such as music, literature and poetry. The growing improvements in communications and transport also brought the states one step closer together. The reduction of the number of German states from 365 to 39 states made each state more economically and militarily stronger. Conditions, particularly economic conditions, were such in 1862 that Bismarck was able to build on them and gain the credit for their successes.
set out by the Declaration of the Rights of Man. His ?France before all? policy was resented across Europe and, although Napoleon changed the structure of the German states for the better by reducing the number of them from over four hundred to just thirty nine, the German people realised that the French revolution was far different in theory than in practise, and the German states were again stuck in a regime th... ... middle of paper ... ...driving force behind unification. Some historians argue that Bismarck single handedly unified Germany, and that he had a master-plan from the moment he was made minister-president, while others think that he was in the right place to take credit for unification at the right time. However, the opinions of most historians lie somewhere between the two extremes.
Weimar was the hope of the people. The Germans, who felt their whole way of live had been made evil by the world, and had been annihilated in the war, reinvented themselves—and like the Germans they are, did the job all the way. World War I bred this new republic. It was, if nothing else, a cultural and psychological reaction, leading to a drastic change that would shape the German future, and forever color its gaze upon the past.
Nationalism is a unifying term that looks to create a national community by sharing the history of the nation, its religion, language, and common culture. As the nineteenth century moved away from the Enlightenment and the universalism that came with it, nationalism was inspired by the freethinking Romantics. Although the ideology of nationalism started off along side liberalism, it grew to be accepted by both liberals and conservatives as the nineteenth century moved along. Nationalism became established during the French Revolution in response to social and economic changes. People all over Europe started to pick out their common goals for their respected countries and banned together, for the most part, to reach these goals and bring about their sense of nationalism for their country.
This consolidation process, called mediation, led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and brought the same French legal codes, measurements, and weights to most German-speaking areas, thus helping to modernize them. In 1806 Napoleon defeated the last independent and defiant German state, Prussia. The Prussians, quite naturally, were concerned about their defeat and started a thorough reform and modernization of the state and army (they "reinvented government"). Reformed Prussia became the hope of many other Germans who started to suffer increasingly under French occupation (which turned more repressive and exploitative) and their often forced cooperation with France. The Congress of Vienna in 1814-15 created the so-called German Confederation under Austrian and Prussian hegemony, but this unit disappointed the dreams of nationalists.
The Era of Modern Germany Throughout time, nations have attempted to become independent from one another by discovering means to help their citizens experience more fulfilling lives. The dilemma that troubled each of these countries is whether or not innovations, in technology and society, led to a higher quality of life. In the book, Rites of Spring, Modris Eksteins examines how innovation affected the citizens of Germany. Eksteins conveys that technological and industrial innovations paved the way for social transformations, throughout Germany. These social changes include a newfound appreciation for Art, tolerance of homosexuality, and a new approach towards warfare.
They were also no doubt affected by the position of the army in German society and the interference of a government dominated by the military. The presence of minorities within the empire and growing anti-Semitism in Europe encourages racist views, and the growing political importance of the SPD stimulated fears of socialist threats to the nation. Above all, during this period, German nationalism became rooted in chauvinist masculine sentiments. By 1890, Germans felt their allegiance to a normal state at least as strongly as the citizens of France and other European countries. Germany had not only built up all of the required symbols of national identity such as a common currency, flag and anthem, it relied heavily on well integrated national machinery, including the post office, judiciary, and Reichstag.
The latter one accelerated the rise of American composers, and the American artists started to replace the historical German orientation with French culture (Ogasapian). The Gilded Age had prepared the way for this transition after Civil War, many people moved to the West. People who were oppressed and frustrated by their lives made up their minds to seek for gold, to escape suffering, and to find better lives in the West. Composers started to write songs containing people’s daily lives such as new inventions and adventure sto... ... middle of paper ... ...tronic means also made them affordable to musicians. According to the post-modernism, everything is created in necessity and should be better than prior one.