German Concentration Camps in Night by Elie Wiesel

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The first concentration camp was established shortly after Hitler was named Chancellor in 1933. The SA (Storm Troopers), the SS (elite guard of the Nazi party), and local authorities organized numerous detention camps for political opponents of the Nazi party. These camps were placed all over Germany, the larger camps were located north of Berlin, and northwest of Munich. Families were dragged from their homes, separated from their children, and put into these camps. In July of 1943, the SS gained independence from the SA. Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, was appointed by Hitler to formalize the camps and make them into a system. After December of 1943, the SS was the only agency authorized to establish and manage facilities that were formally known as concentration camps. In 1937, only four concentration camps remained: Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, and Lichtenburg. Theodor Eicke, already a commandant of Dachau in 1933, industrialized an organization and procedures to administer and guard a concentration camp. This included the duties of the perimeter guard, and treatme...

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