Geothermal energy

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Our planet constantly emits energy in the form of heat, which is propagated from deeper areas to the surface : this is the so-called heat flow or geothermal flux . The heat of the sun warms the earth's surface with a flow that is almost 6,000 times greater than that produced inside the Earth , but the geothermal flux , constant and continuous , is an important source of heating for our Planet : with an average of 0.06 watts per m2 , the entire surface of the Earth radiates an amount of heat equal to about 30 trillion watts. That the Earth becomes warmer deep down is a phenomenon well known to the miners in some mines and tunnels deep temperatures are reached at the limit of human survival ( not so in the caves , where the natural circulation of air and water drops the temperature substantially , so that the increase of temperature with depth is hardly perceptible ) . The heat of the Earth is for the most part due to the release of energy in the processes of decay of radioactive isotopes of some elements such as , for example, potassium , thorium and uranium . Due to the varying thickness of the crust and the different geological situations , which may cause the slope of the hottest materials from deep zones , the geothermal gradient (ie the increase of temperature with depth ) is not equal in all the Earth : in average temperature increases of 2-3 ° C per 100 m of depth , but the increase can vary from 1 up to 5 ° C/100 m . To measure the geothermal gradient are carried out at least 300 m deep wells ( so as not to be affected by changes daily and annual temperature due to climatic influences ) , in which it is being hauled special thermometers that record temperatures at different depths. To find the most suitable areas for the ex... ... middle of paper ... any case , it is guaranteed the use of non-toxic substances for the environment. Closed circuits allow a great saving of water, which , once entered in the system, is continuously reused. The plants are small in size and virtually no visual impact : Once completed , all that you see is the heat pump , the size of a refrigerator, and hot water tank , footprint of a standard water heater. The noise produced by the pumps is similar to that of a refrigerator and can therefore be installed inside of the housing . The only " restriction " to the diffusion of this new system for domestic air conditioning is the use in large buildings (such as , for example , a large building with several floors ) , which requires the implementation of the different probes ( or to reach a depth further , with consequent higher costs ) and the installation of a larger number of heat pumps

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