Space travel began in the 1960s with sending humans on single missions into space. Rockets launched into the air and just the tip would land in the ocean after parachuting back to Earth ("Space Shuttle Program," par. 4). The focus of space exploration changed during the 1980s; shifting from the desire for human space flight to the desire to create a reusable spacecraft. Originally called Space Transportation System (STS), NASA created the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) (Heiney, par.
He, unlike Yuri Gagarin, did not orbit Earth. The first American to orbit the earth was John Glenn, who did this in February 1962. President Kennedy stated later that May that the US would land a man on the moon before the end of the... ... middle of paper ... ...lantis and Endeavour. Together, the orbiters have launched more than 130 times and have traveled more than half a billion miles. The shuttles were designed to hold 4 to 7 people at a time, though they have carried 2 and 8 people.
*Lagrange points: There are five other locations around a planet’s orbit where the gravitational forces and the orbital motion of the spacecraft, Sun and planet interact to create a stable location from which to make observations. STAGES OF THE SLS 1. CORE STAGE The core stage of the SLS consists of a modified Space Shuttle External Tank with the aft section modified to accept the rocket's Main Propulsion System (MPS) and the top modified to hold an interstage structure. Since the M... ... middle of paper ... ...ines, will be installed on the stand for propellant fill and drain testing and two hot-fire tests. Engine Testing A new 7755-pound thrust frame adapter for the A-1 Test Stand is being fabricated to enable testing of the RS-25 engines.
in diameter. A 19 ft., 2 in. escape tower was fastened to the cylinder of the capsule. The rounded, bottom end was covered with a heat shield to protect it against the 3,000 degree heat from atmospheric entry. Before the United States launched any humans into space, they launched an unmanned test flight of the booster and capsule, which carried a chimpanzee.
For its boosters NASA chose two U.S. military rockets: the Army’s Redstone, which provided 78,000 pounds of thrust, was used for suborbital flights, and the Air Force Atlas, providing 360,000 pounds of thrust, was used for orbital fights. The Mercury craft was fastened to the top of the booster for launch. Upon reaching the limits of Earth’s atmosphere the boosters were released from the module, and fell into uninhabited ocean. The first Mercury launch was performed on May 5, 1961. The ship, Freedom 7, was the first U.S. craft used for manned space flight.
This expensive way of space travel was forever changed with the creation of the space shuttle. The Columbia space shuttle was important to space exploration because it used new technology that changed space travel, completed missions that other spacecraft could not, and brought new people into space. NASA received a contract to build the shuttle on July 26, 1972 as a prototype named the Enterprise (Dunbar “Space Shuttle” 1). Construction began on March 25, 1975, in Rockwell International’s assembly plant in Palmdale, California, and was completed and ready for its first flight on April 12, 1981 (Dunbar “Space Shuttle” 1). The first reusable spacecraft was too heavy, weighing 178,000 pounds, and missing the necessary tools to assist with the construction of the International Space Station (Dunbar “Space Shuttle” 1).
This goal was realized on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon. The next great leap was the Apollo-Soyuz project, where for the first time, a space mission involved more than one nation. During the 1960’s and 70’s, unmanned spacecraft were being sent to the Moon and Mars, as communication and navigation. Also by the 1970’s, communications and navigations satellites were being used every day. Beginning in 1981 and up to 2011, the Space Shuttle Program allowed for reliable use of space transport by both civilian and military operations.
ed. "Space" <a href="http://click.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/stat?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&offerid=6424&type=2&subid=0&url=http%253A//search.borders.com/fcgi-bin/db2www/search/search.d2w/Details%253F%2526mediaType%253DBook%2526prodID%253D30567443" >1997 Information Please Almanac<IMG border=0 alt=icon width=1 height=1 src="http://ad.linksynergy.com/fs-bin/show?id=pcZ8g7DjAzA&bids=6424&type=2&subid=0" >. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Comp. 1997.Lemonick, Michael D. "Nukes in Space." Time Magazine September 22, 1997: 76-77.Pope, Victoria.
In March 5 of 1958 Explorer 2 was launched by another Jupiter-C rocket and failed to reach orbit. October 1, 1958 NASA was founded, taking over existing National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics and only ten days later U.S. - IGY space probe was launched to a incredible height of 70,700 miles. On March 3 of 1959 Pioneer 4, an U.S.-IGY space probe is launched by a Juno II rocket, and achieves an earth-moon trajectory, passing within 37,000 miles of the moon. It then fell into a solar orbit, becoming the first U.S. sun orbiter. About a year later Tiros 1 was fired into earth's orbit and became the first successful weather satellite for the United States.
Then on March 3, the US sent up Pioneer 4 in hopes of reaching the moon, but it fell into solar orbit. Then on September 12, USSR launched Luna 2 which landed on the moon and as the first man-made object to do so. On October 4, USSR sent Luna 3 into space and photographed 70% of the Moon’s surface. On April 1, 1960, the US launch Tiros 1, which is the first successful weather satellite. On August 18, the US launched its first camera equipped spy satellite, Discoverer XIV.