The Cold War put us on the brink of war with the Soviet Union. This could have possibly been the one thing that started the fear of communism. Russian spies are everywhere. People suspected each other, even their neighbors. Since the soviet Union was a communist country that was spreading it’s influence in Europe.
The Salem Witch Trials were filled with the lies of people being witches that would eventually destroy their reputations. The United States was in a state of scare when they feared that communist agents would come and try to destroy our government system. An example of this scare was the Cold war. During the cold war the U.S. supported the anti-communist group while the Soviet Union favored the communist party. Many people who still supported the communist party still lived in the U.S.
5). This loss of grounding under Stalin’s rule is a main contributor toward the terrorization of Russia, for it explains the extent Stalin reached in order to attain power. Watching people run in fear intensified Stalin’s will to kill for power causing his citizens’ angst to escalate. “I am not convinced that [Stalin] will manage to use this power with care” (WW II: Behind Closed Doors, para. 3).
Many intellectuals supported Communism in the U.S. which led to more concern within the country. The communistic threat presented by the Soviets in the war led to the spread of Communism within the U.S. It was a fear that many Americans spoke out against in attempt to save the American society. George Orwell spoke out against it in 1949 by warning people in his novel 1984 that the spread of Communism would affect the country negatively. In this book, he portrays how a totalitarian dictatorship corrupts and has the power over citizens through technology, psychological manipulation and mind control, physical control, and the alteration of facts about history.
The Soviet Union had grudges held against the United States, like not entering the war soon enough causing many of the Russian soldiers to die, which also added tension to their alliance. Their tensions in their alliance soon were cause of the Cold war. First, the United States feared that the Russians would try to take control and influence the popularity of communism to other countries. Next is that fear had become a reality when the Soviet Union aimed to increase communism control and spread it through out the world. The United States had developed the atomic bomb and dropped it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet Union wanted to gain information.
For America, the Soviet State threatened everything it represented; freedom of speech, religious freedoms and a democratically elected government. The perceived external threat was complete Soviet expansion as China had already fallen into under a communist regime in 1949 and North Korea had become a warzone in an attempt to spread communism into South Korea as well . Given the significant external threat to the US from the Soviet State, America also focused on the internal communist threat presented by the American Communist Party and its sympathisers which created varying levels of hysteria throughout society as it caused a sense of distrust around who was going to threaten core American values. This Red Scare brought with it the revival of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) to carry out the country’s communist purge. There is controversy as to whether this anti-communist crusade was a justified reaction to the threat that was facing America.
Society blaimed the people for their reactions to the fear of the bomb. Furthermore, the government presented itself as protector, leading to increased confusion and chaos. In modern society, deciding who is the enemy and who holds the power, determines who controls the fate of the world.
Many of the historians perspectives about the causes of the Cold War varies to a certain extent. The Orthodox view generally holds that the Soviet Union was responsible for the Cold War. It states that the Soviets were inevitably expansionist , due to their suspicion of the West. Thus, Stalin violated the Yalta and Potsdam agreements, occupied and imposed Soviet control in Eastern Europe and decides to ¨plot¨ the spread of Communism throughout the world with Moscow as its centre. The Revisionist view had an alternative perspective about the Cold War.
But there are several varieties of liberalism. Joseph McCarthy and other conservatives believed that Hollywood had been infiltrated by Communism and the Soviet Union. Conservatives were in a position of power at this point and abused it relentlessly. Any movie could now be seen as secret propaganda in support of the USSR. The fear of a black-list in Hollywood caused a bit of liberal outcry.
These events in the novel contribute the fear created by the one state. Zamyatin utilises the motif of fear as a parallel to the use of ‘Cheka’ under the control of Vladimir Lenin. “The Red Terror was a period in 1918 when the murderous activities of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, intensified to instill fear across Russia.” (Allison, 2010) As quoted, the purpose of the Cheka was the fear the people of Soviet Russia. Likewise, Zamyatin used the bureau of guardians to fear the one state from revolting again the one state. The use of the Bureau of Guardians is to construct the motif of fear.