Genocide is a term that most people in the world have heard of in one way or another. People may have heard it through any film viewings, books, or any other media outlet, the point is, many people have heard of genocide in one way or another. Though genocide may be generally known by most people, a fraction of those people may only have an in-depth understanding of what genocide exactly is. With all of that said, for the research memo, the topic of genocide is going to the subject of the research memo. The beginning part of the paper will focus on the history and origins of genocide. Following the origins of genocide, theories will be discussed to explain why people participate in genocide and why genocide happens for that matter. After the
Genocide is the intentional killing of groups with the purpose of eliminating the existence of the group. The term "genocide" was created in 1944 to describe the systematic elimination of Jews under the Nazi regime. The word combines the Greek suffix, "geno-", meaning race, and "-cide", meaning "killing". According to Article II of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, genocide refers to the following acts that are meant to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group by causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group (directly or through actions causing death), deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group (e.g. forced sterilization), or forcibly transferring children (persons under the age of 14 years) of the group to another group. Article III of the convention defines "genocide, the conspiracy to commit genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, attempt to commit genocide, and complicity in genocide" as punishable acts. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the he Genocide Convention on 9 December 1948, and the Convention was commenced on 12 January 1951. The Genocide Convention has been ratified by over 130 nations and over 70 nations have made provisions for the punishment of genocide in domestic criminal law. Article 6 of the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court includes the content of Article II of the Genocide Convention as a crime. (http://www.genocidewatch.org/genocide/whatisit.html)
The truth about genocide is each situation is unique, the motivations, mindsets and values can all change from example to example. One thing remains the same, genocide is always a deliberate action that results in the death of many people. Whether a genocide is meant to be a statement of power, a political scheme, or a means of cleansing a nation of people whom someone has deemed unfit to live there, genocide remains unto this day an almost natural reaction by which people solve complex issues. The importance of studying genocide is that understanding the motivations, no matter how deplorable, that lead to genocidal actions is the only way by which we can begin to present new less atrocious ways of handling these complex social issues to the depraved individuals who orchestrate genocide.
Genocide’s shadow has been lingering over the world’s head for centuries. Genocides date back to Caesar’s era and before. Genocides have either left a group of people extinct or near depletion. This conflit brings long-term as well as short-term consequences to many civilizations dealing with genocide. No one is safe from genocide; it can happen to any ethnicity. Society needs to prevent genocide to stop ethnic wipeouts; however, no actions are in affect. The only law trying to stop genocide is from the United Nations:
“Are all humans human? Or are some more human than others?” (Shake Hands with the Devil, 2004, pg. 522). The term genocide refers to the actions of mass murders of a group; for reasons such as differences in race, religion and or culture. In 1945 Raphael Lemkin coined the term genocide to describe how important it is to prevent mass murders from happening. The United Nations was formed in January of 1945 during World War II with the mission to keep peace around the world and offer protection (Clark and Wallace, 2003 pg. 379). In 1948 the United Nations passed the genocide convention and the world said “never again”. However this was not the case because “never again” became “again and again” (PBS, 2005). Throughout the twentieth century genocides were a common struggle and still are today; which goes against the UN policy. The world’s response to these issues should not be denial; it should be accepting the fact that there needs to be change. It is important to stop genocides and prevent future occurrences. The prevention of genocides is an attainable goal if we have more international media coverage to aid people negatively impacted by genocide; and end these crimes against humanity before they begin. The UN policy structure needs to be revamped to ensure three things; laws, awareness and support.
It is amazing the word genocide has not been identified earlier in time. It is quite evident that it has been Practice with various controlling entities throughout history. It can be seen in the Peloponnesian War by statements giving by Thucydides”; He describes in his writings the slaughtering of people in Melos after refusing to surrender. Many references of various battles in ancient time would slaughter the men in the populace in the city, to display their dominance and show some traits of genocide. A good example in the battle of Greece during the Romans conflict; successful victory campaign would be the destruction of the city of Athens which include the dissemination of women and children. The Romans burn and destroy the city and killed the inhabitants to send a message to the surrounding communities. (Hoyer) They are other examples of genocide throughout history. (John Boardman).” We can even look back further in history and see evidences of genocide. The Hungarian conflict with the Roman Empire in 900's where to set out to destroy the Hungarian populace. In 900 AD the roman emperor wanting of the extermination of the Hungarians by the use of Genocide which in my opinion only unified the people to confront the overwhelming forces against them. A way to best described racial diversity is to understand the environment and location; best stated in this quote of Balkans. “The peoples of the Balkan Peninsula make up several racial groups. (R.D. Kaplan) However, linguistic and religious differences are more distinct than the racial divisions.” The peninsula, is considered as a crossroads of European and Asian civilizations, which contain a long history; Ancient Greece, the Byzantine Empire, and the Ottoman Empi...
In the past 150 years, tens of millions of men, women and children have lost their lives to ethnic cleansing or genocide. Although the definition is often scrutinized, according to Merriam Webster, "Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political or cultural group". The most notable event associated with the term is the Holocaust. Stated by Judah Gribets, Edward Greenstein and Regina Stein, "nearly six million Jews fell victim to genocide during the years of the Holocaust". Of This number, one million were children who were unable to take care of themselves. People's hopes and dreams for the future were stripped from them, and many families were ripped apart. Many of these people were tortured or raped after being forced from their homes. Those who were able to work were forced to do so, and the rest were to be killed. People knew that they would never see their families again. Genocide does not stop there either. Nearly a dozen countries have, or currently are facing a crises like this. Past atrocities go all the way back to Armenia in 1915, Cambodia in 1975, Rwanda in the early 1990s and Bosnia in 1991. Countries that are currently at risk include: Burma, Libya, Sudan and Syria. As of now, all eyes are on Sudan as tensions continually grow in Darfur. If action is not taken to stop genocide, the future of Darfur may hold mass killings that top even those of Cambodia, Rwanda and the Holocaust.
There are many worldwide conflicts that occurred throughout history that made a negative impact on the world, but there’s one of these conflicts that stood out from the rest, and still remains present in today’s society. This conflict is called a genocide; the deliberate and systematic extermination of a nation, racial, political or cultural group ( United States ). According to the united sates holocaust memorial museum the term genocide didn’t really come about until 1944.
Spangenburg, Ray, and Kit Moser. The Crime of Genocide. 1st ed. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, Inc., 2000. 54-63. Print.
In December 1948, the then members of the United Nations General Assembly, without contention, passed the Convention on Genocide. It defined what the crime of genocide entailed and that it was an act to be prevented and its perpetrators punished. It has been 66 years since then and we have not been able to fulfill this promise - shattering its very principles time and time again - in places such as Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda or Darfur. Man - a supposedly civilized species - has not been able to resist the urge to systematically destroy the 'undesirable' members of a society. There has been and always will be characteristics which define and divide us - race, religion, caste and culture, among others. Classification is the first and ever-present stage of genocide - there will always be an "us" and a proverbial "them". Although prejudice is human nature and may be pardonable, acting upon prejudice is not.
According to article three of the United Nations Genocide Convention (UNGC), genocide means any of the following: “Killing members of a group, causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; forcibly transferring children of the group to another group” (Hinton 3). This means that genocide does not only involve mass killings but also a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups
Throughout the last two decades, genocide has plagued the world’s history. Within every genocide there has ran a constant theme throughout, at the root, hatred. From here is grows into an intractable behemoth consisting of inexplicable murders of numerous people. Although the methods vary, the purpose it xeroxed, to rid a particular group of people in order to make the world a better place in the eyes of the perpetrator.
"A genocide begins with the killing of one man, not for what he has done,but who he is"-Kofi Annan. Genocide is the extreme discrimination towards a group of people due to their race, religion, intelligence, appearance etc. Many people believe that genocide only occurred during World War II in 1939 with the Holocaust. The Holocaust began in January 30, 1933 with the massive massacre of six million Jews. These Jews were killed because the majority of German society believed that Jews were stealing what belong to them such as jobs and other benefits. Since this major impact on the world, many people are under the influence that it does not occur or exist. However, genocide has been occurring throughout the world since 1942 and even before.
The legal definition of genocide, found in Article II of the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide 1948, is when “any of the following acts are committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such, killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group and or forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.” Acts of genocide have occurred as early as the 1800’s. One of the most famous cases of genocide was the Holocaust,