Genetically Modified Fruit

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Herbicides are chemicals that kill plants. Some plants are genetically modified to resist the application of herbicides. Herbicides are developed to be efficient against numerous target weeds, but it will not kill GM crops. Weeds must be controlled for they might have a huge impact on the crop yield . By the introduction of a new gene into a plant susceptible to herbicides, one can increased the tolerance of the plant towards the herbicide (Ahmad et al. 2012). De Freitas et al. introduced an anti-apoptotic p35 gene from baculovirus into the genome of the passion fruit (De Freitas et al. 2012). The expression of the p35 gene reduced the progression of programmed cell death caused by the glufosinate herbicide. The enzyme glutamine synthase inhibits glufosinate, leading to buildup of ammonia, which stimulate the production of a chemical that is toxic to plants. The transgenic passion fruit plant showed more tolerance towards the herbicide glufosinate when the non-transgenic plant was compared with the transgenic plant (De Freitas et al. 2012). Fruits infected with microorganisms leading to diseases can be a great problem for mankind, because less fruit will be available, more pesticides and fungicides will be used which will set more pressure on the environment. Pesticides and fungicides can be expensive (Uzogara 2000). Green mould caused by the Penicillium digitatum, a postharvest disease is a big problem in citrus, because it leads to postharvest losses. A study was done to control green mould by applying Paenibacillus polymyxa strain SG-6 to the citrus fruit. Upon the application, the bacteria inhibited the growth of Penicillium digitatum and Lai and colleagues found that the green moulds’ growth reduced quicker if the t... ... middle of paper ... ...nefits. Journal of Chromatography B 756 (1-2) : 327-335. • Streatfield, S. J. 2007.Approaches to achieve high-level heterologous protein production in plants. Plant Biotechnology Journal 5 : 2-15. • Trivedi, P. K. and Nath, P. 2004. MaExp1, an ethylene-induced expansin from ripening banana fruit. Plant Science 167 : 1351-1358. • Uzogara, S. G. 2000. The impact of genetic modification of human foods in the 21st century: a review. Biotechnology Advances 18 (3) : 179-206. • Varoquaux, F., Robert, B., Michel, D. and Patrick, G. 2000. Less is better: new approaches for seedless fruit production. Trends in Biotechnology 18 (6) : 233-242. • Wasserman, S. A. 2008. Animal nutrition. In Campbell, N. A., Reece, J. B., Urry, L. A., Cain, M. L., Wasserman, S. A., Minorsky, P. V. and Jackson, R. B. (ed.), Biology, Rearson Benjamin Cummings. 1267pp. (ISBN: 9780321536167).

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