Gene splicing involves removing a fragment of DNA containing the specific DNA sequenc... ... middle of paper ... ...cientist will have to learn how to turn on specific genes when a protein of enzyme is low, and off to avoid too much to ensure the delicate chemical makeup of our bodies is not disrupted. (Blachford, 467) Although there are many risks of gene therapy, the benefits remain to enticing to ignore. Gene therapy poses many risks, but may prove the ideal solution for countless diseases. As seen throughout the past few decades, gene therapy can cure genetically inherited diseases by introducing therapeutic genes into the body. Critics may argue that there are moral and ethical problems associated with this novel technique, but for the most part scientists realize the importance this advancement will have.
Genetic testing is used to determine the risk of a patient or patient’s offspring developing genetic diseases. This is done with DNA sequencing in adults and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PDG) on embryos. These methods of genetic testing are effective means of determining the likelihood of developing diseases such as Huntington’s disease, a disease resulting from trinucleotide repeat on chromosome 4p16.3 that causes uncontrollable muscle movement and decrease in cognitive function. However, they only determine probability, which isn’t an entirely reliable means of knowing whether or not symptoms will arise. It is patients’ right to opt for genetic testing on their own DNA, although they are accepting a great risk by doing so.
Chromosomal tests check for a genetic disorder by checking for larger genetic variations in whole chromosomes and long lengths of DNA. Biochemical tests focus more on proteins and enzyme activity (FAQ About Genetic Testing, 2014). Different genetic testing techniques are available to both adults and embryos. Testing done on adults usually occurs in order to find out whether or not they are a carrier and can pass a genetic disorder onto their offspring. Conversely, testing executed on embryos reveals if they are a victim of a particular genetic disease.
By analysis a DNA of an individual, we are able to diagnose diseases that are hereditary at an early stage. Genetic diseases are diseases that arise from one or more abnormalities in a genotype (or genotypes) (Elston, 311). Genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia and Down syndrome could not only just be detected, but predicted from the parents. Parents could be potential carriers, although not affected by the genetic disease, but still carry the gene of the disease, and could potentially pass it down to their children (Watson, 335). Through genetic testing, we could detect flaws in our genes that may potentially be passed down to our future generations and take the necessary precautions to minimize the impact of the genetic diseases, or optimally, removing the risk of having the disease completely.
This in the long run is economical and treatment is effective. Screening of this type involves the detection of genetic disease and must first be defined to assure an understanding in the objectives of screening. Carriers of a genetic disease appear normal and are not affected except if the trait is expressed quantitatively across a population. In this case, the individual will have some disease characteristics however, not as severe as those with the disease. Individuals that have a genetic disease are almost always homozygous recessive for that gene meaning that there is an insufficiency in its ability to perform the correct function.
Human Genetic Screening What is genetic screening? Genetic screening is the testing of cells to check for certain kinds of genes, or for potentially damaging changes to those genes. It may be defined as a systematic search for persons with a particular genotype in a defined population. Genetic screening serves as an important adjunct of modern preventive medicine. The usual approach is to identify persons whose genotype places them or their offspring at risk for genetic diseases.
The Human Genome Project has allowed geneticists to map the genes of human beings. This project is far from complete, as the DNA sequence of humans is extremely long, yet it will eventually show geneticists which genes are responsible for certain inherited diseases. Identified genes could be repaired, resulting in the irradiation of inherited diseases, such as cancer. Just last year, the locations of genes for several diseases were confirmed and may soon be correctable. Secondly, research in genetics has brought about a new medical field, genetic counseling.
There are pros on cons to Genetic Screening that can be researched for people who are deciding whether or not they want to go forth with the testing. There are many benefits one will receive when undergoing a Genetic Screening. These consist of becoming aware of diseases or genetic disorders that one may inherit from their parents before actually being diagnosed with the disease. If a possibility of a disease is caught early enough, doctors can prescribe medicine and ask one to change different things in their lifestyle and hopefully the disease will be eliminated and they will have a better chance of survival. (What are the benefits of genetic testing?
This is because gene therapy targets the reproductive cells of carriers of such genetic disorders so it is possible that any children the carrier goes on, gene therapy would free them of the defective gene (Ali et al., 1994). Some of the cons of gene therapy are that it is still fairly a new discovery so we have not figured out completely how to safely use it on humans without harming them. With current knowledge there is no guarantee that the vector carrying the healthy gene will end up in the specific place it is intended so, there is a risk of causing even more damage... ... middle of paper ... ...the near future when gene therapy is perfected it is going cure these 500 people that die each year and completely wipeout cystic fibrosis. Gene therapy is a very exciting new approach of treating genetic disorders. When gene therapy is perfected it will the medicine field and will revolutionize the way we treat cancer.
No longer must many people with high risk families worry about whether or not they may contract the same disease as their ancestors. Diseases and disorders such as Huntington chorea, Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscular Dystrophy, Hemophilia, and some kinds of cancer such as breast, colon, thyroid, ovarian, and skin can now be identified on a particular gene and can likely predict the probability of disease onset. But with this technology comes many physiological and ethical problems. Within this paper, I will define genetic screening, look at the controversial ethical viewpoints, and give a brief overview to this situation. Genetic Screening is a relatively new concept that is just now becoming more widespread.