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These proteins are then used as a blueprint for the function and structure of the organism. When the DNA is mutated, it alters the normal growth of the cells. This results in the cells not dying as they normally would, and a tumor may form; these tumors are commonly called "cancer" (www.cancer.gov). A tumor can be benign, which means it is not cancerous, or it can be malignant, which is cancerous. The tumor is comprised of abnormal cells.
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2013).The main biochemical characteristics of apoptosis include caspase activation and DNA fragmentation (Madeo, Frohlich et al. 1997, Du, Fang et al. 2000). Apoptosis is induced by various physiological or toxic signals such as chemotherapeutics, DNA damage, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Impaired cell death is a characteristic of cancer cells, determining their resistance to apoptotic signals, (Adams and Cory 2007, Hartman and Czyz 2013) which is one of the six essential alterations in cell biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumours (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011, Hartman and Czyz 2013) and remains critical in effective cancer treatment strategies (Adams and Cory 2007).
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