In this paper, I apply a critical discourse analysis method to review gendered narratives concerning poverty, social inequalities and gender relations in order to understand how migration reproduces gender-biased social structures. I argue that migration places constraints on women’s agency, contrary to popular notions that women’s empowerment is largely realized through the migration process (in the form of resource gains and improvement in social position). Conversely, I believe that migration increases the burden of patriarchy on women, calling for the sensitive negotiation of gender roles. Drawing on ‘subjective knowledge’ accounts and feminist theories, I aim to problematize the credibility of migration as an effective development strategy, revealing how widely found opinions, which tend to polarize the implications of migration as either good or bad, are supported by a narrow frame of reference, namely economic growth or neoliberalism. I believe that a more representative evaluation requires adopting a human development paradigm, which, as per its distinctive attention to enhancing people’s capabilities, offers a conceptual space for considering other determinants of quality of life such as the intersection of gender with race and class.
"Social status and change: the question of access to resources and women's empowerment in the Middle East and North Africa." Journal of International Women's Studies 14.1 (2013): 273+. Global Issues In Context. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.
1.1 Background Women in Pakistan face several challenges due to their economic, social, and cultural status. They constitute 52% of the total population of Pakistan but unfortunately, they function from a subordinate position inherit in both traditional and state institutions. The Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) helps us to understand gender inequalities and its connection to vulnerability, particularly inequalities between men and women. When this measure is taken into consideration, Pakistan ranks 152 of 155 countries which show greater gender disparity. A similar index on gender issues is the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), which takes into account gender inequality in economic and political spheres.
I ultimately intend to explore what portion of the sexism in academia is real or perceived; real sexism being direct and tangible disadvantages to women, and perceived sexism being disadvantages to women based on self-devaluing. In my opinion, sexism has been part of our society for so long that it is instill in women at an early age that they will not and cannot have the same mobility as men. This plays a major role in women’s lack of upward mobility in academia and other professions. This research is significant to society because in order to reduce gender disparities we must fully understand their origins. This is an issue that affects all professional women and urgently needs to be addressed.
Castellano, Punzo and Rocca (2013) wrote in their article, there is a concern in Europe about social policies on women participation in the labor market, which the objective is promote the gender equality and revitalizing the work area through the female participation. Thus, some countries have worries about laws and rules with worker woman because there isn’t doubt that she brings benefits for the society. However, the entry of women into labor force is not simple as could be. There is still a pr... ... middle of paper ... ...G., & Rocca, A. (2013).
Women in America had not been working until the start of World War II. Since then, policies have been established to help to counter the discrimination against women in the workforce. Policies like Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1964 and Equal Pay act of 1963 had been implemented in order for women to be seen as equals in the labor workforce. However, many believe that women are actually paid less compared to men leading to a growing debate on whether a gender wage gap exists or not. This can attribute to a variety of contributors leading to women having lower wages than men.
The gender gap in labor force participation (LFP) in Iran is much larger than most other countries, but it has been declining. Also, the composition of women’s employment has been shifting towards professional and entrepreneurial positions, especially in the private sector (Salehi Esfahani 2010). Since Iran has similar labor market conditions like other countries in the Middle East and North African region, examining the forces behind the above mentioned patterns will help in coming up with potential specific policies to address the changes in the female labor force participation rate. When we examine the change in the participation rate of the female labor force, we must analyze the main forces that led to that change. We also need to look at whether societal norms and ideologies have anything to do with the changes in the female LPF rates.