Reproductive capability was tied to medical discussions of gender but also social conversation because procreation was so central to adult identity and marital po... ... middle of paper ... ...e may become a gender by accomplishment certain achievements, deemed critical to defining sex, by religious, medical, media, or societal “experts.” In early nineteenth century Europe reproductive capability and the gendered acquisition of knowledge were two of the most critical of these achievements. Austen’s Northanger Abbey serves as an anthropologic observation and satirical critique of these true sex experiences while Herculine Barbin’s memoir allows unique insight into the qualifiers of true sex and the transcendence of individuals outside of the expected true sex binary. These works illuminate how much of a person’s gender performance success was tied to procreative ability, and proper gender education and vocational pursuits. These aspects helped create gender identities and were deciding elements in the sometimes challenging quest to determine true sex.
The fact that these hormones are secreted from ‘sexual organs’ gave scientific license to claim them as sexual hormones: the explanatory factor of the male female difference. This essay will discuss how the study of hormones reaffirmed culturally constructed notions of the innate difference between male and female and the idea that this fact is biologically determined. The early 1900s was a time of social and political upheaval regarding developing thought on feminism and equal rights, the hormone studies and ideas of “sex antagonism” by the physiologist Eugen Steinach greatly show how this science was influenced by cultural notions (Fausto-Sterling, 159). As asserted by Anne Fausto-Sterling, Steinach’s “entire life’s work was premised on the unexamined idea that there must be a sharp ‘natural’ distinction between maleness and femaleness” (Fausto-Sterling, 158). Instead of observing these hormones without bias and looking to understand how they function, Steinach sets out to prove a difference.
Female gender mutilation and gender reassignment surgery seem to be about fixing the problem momentously on the outside, but as a human being is composed of body and spirit, shouldn’t there be a correlation between the two components. In this paper, we will examine the position of three authors, and should there be a correlation between the body and spirit, perhaps Ms. Nancy Ehrenreich is absolutely correct in establishing that by not condemning those types of surgery, Americans are bias based on cultural misconceptions and prejudices. Diamond emphasizes in his article on how Scientifics attribute gender identity to the environment. Consequently, given this line of reasoning in the medical field, there is the predicament in raising a male child with a futile penis or a female child with a dysfunctional vagina, as Diamond states. In most of the cases they chose to implant a vagina in these children (1997, p.1).
According to Johnny Weir, “Masculinity is what you believe it to be... [it is] all by perception, [I believe] masculinity and femininity is something that is very old-fashioned... [there is a] whole new generation of people who aren’t defined by their race or their sex or who they like to sleep with.” This statement exemplifies the definition of gender as a concept; gender is the expectations of a sex according to the culture of society. Sexuality, within this definition of gender, reflects society’s expectations, which are created in relation to the opposite sex. The variances between cultures means that gender expectations change within different cultures. These expectations put pressure on each member of society to conform and abide by the folkways of their own culture. The creation of gender expectations by society creates a restricting definition of gender roles and sexuality that vary from culture to culture.
Bem, S.L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press In this book, leading theorist on sex and gender Sandra L. Bem discusses how hidden molds in our cultural discourse, social institution, and individual minds support male dominance while oppressing women and sexual minorities. She explains her lenses of gender, which shape perceptions of social reality and also more physical things – like unequal salary and insufficient daycase – that establish social reality itself before she presents her theory of how cultural gender lenses are shaped and influence either the adaptation of conventional gender identity or the resistance of conventional gender identity.
In Doing Gender authors West and Zimmerman argue the concept of gender being an outcome of daily life rather than an outcome from a physician with an ultrasound with only two permanent results. The meaning behind the term gender invokes different connotations of either masculine or feminine qualities that lay the groundwork for societies preexisting roles. Society today views gender as being either of masculine or feminine form however the controversy with this is how this is determined in our society today as well as in the past. Both authors fall upon the idea that sex is a disposition of birth whereas gender is a disposition of your actions after your birth. “It is necessary to move beyond the notion of gender display to consider what
The Supreme court in 1965 ruled Connecticut’s1879 anti- contraception statue to b... ... middle of paper ... ...men to have control of their fertility but the significance of the two drugs seem to have ironically have different meanings then before. Could it be that our society is getting used to the idea of women and their rights as well as role they play in our society today, or that our morals and beliefs have changed over time? Either way birth control and plan b has changed our society and empowered women allowing them to have a choice. Works Citied Cohen, Nancy. “How the Sexual Revolution Changed America Forever.” Counterpoint Press.
He talks about how doctors want to know about sex and what would be considered sexually deviant. There is also research in how sexual power is produced. All these theories helped to contribute to the more modern day concepts and ideas about anthropology. Bourgois and Schonfeld brought the great idea of talking about contemporary problems and shedding light on what they are and the faces of who it is. Bourdieu talked about symbolic capitalism and how it is use and the effects that it has.
She argues that the two-sex system dominant in Western society would be misplaced even at the biological level. Instead, it should be expanded beyond the restricted ca... ... middle of paper ... ...rling and Oyeronke Oyewumi. Fausto-Sterling brings forward the idea that sex and gender should be seen on a scale and not conformed to the binary. This spectrum can then be altered by society projecting what they see as normal onto people. These projections suggest a socially constructed definition of sex and gender, and therefore, can lead to more discussion on how gender and sex are a cycle of social construction and biological determinism.
They have created a 'plastic sexuality, which he describes as a sexuality split from traditional sexuality, to many changes not only in female heterosexual behavior but in lesbian and gay behavior as well. Giddens describes our modern society as a "risk society" with three important trends affecting it: globalization, detraditionalization, and social reflexivity. Globalization is how the boundaries of o... ... middle of paper ... ... decades ago. This book is one that will allow the reader to view many aspects of sexuality from a social standpoint, and apply it to certain social attitudes in our society today, these attitudes can range from the acceptance of lesbian and gays, and the common sight of sex before marriage and women equality. The new era of sexuality has taken a definite "transformation" as Giddens puts it, and as a society we are living in the world of change in which we must adapt, by accepting our society as a changing society, and not be naive and think all the rules of sexuality from our parents time our still in existence now.