Gender Stereotypes And Gender Roles

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Changes in society have brought issues regarding gender stereotype. Gender roles are shifting in the US. Influences of women’s movement (Firestone, Firestone, & Catlett, 2006) and gender equality movement (e.g., Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)) have contributed to expanding social roles for both genders. Nevertheless, gender stereotypes, thus gender stereotype roles continue to exist in the society (Skelly & Johnson, 2011; Wood & Eagly, 2010). With changes in gender roles, pervasiveness of gender stereotype results in a sense of guilt, resentment, and anger when people are not living up to traditional social expectations (Firestone, Firestone, & Catlett, 2006). Furthermore, people can hold gender stereotype in pre-reflective level that they may not fully aware of their perceptions. A lack of awareness of biases can lead to negative effects of microagression and stereotype theat. Furthermore, a collapse of traditional gender roles can mean that the younger generations lose concrete images and role models of how they are expected to behave. Microaggression Microaggression, which is a “brief and common place daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights insults” (p. 271) is typically discussed within a context of racism (Sue, Capodilupo, Torino, Bucceri, Holder, Nadal, & Esquilin, 2007). Nevertheless, this concept is also applicable in other forms of discrimination including sexism (DeAngelis, 2009; Sue et al, 2007). Microaggression is an implicit form of discrimination. Perpetrators are often not aware of their expressed biases. Their attitude, tone, gesture, and look that imply devaluation and dismissal of the person due... ... middle of paper ... ... women internalize their perspective gender stereotype roles as a part of their identity (Firestone, Firestone, & Catlett, 2006). Due to changes in the social structure and gender role in the US, people are not as restricted by the stereotype today (Gardiner & Kosmitzki, 2010; Tucker, 2005). However, such changes raised issues that are also challenging to overcome. Gaining awareness of more implicit forms of discrimination and making changes in message vulnerable people receive would help reduce negative effects of discrimination and stereotype (Steel, 1997; Sue, et al., 2007). Furthermore, in the individual level, people can benefit from self-reflection to increase awareness of their own values, beliefs, and desires. Such awareness would likely to lead to mutuality between men and women, and establishing a healthy relationship (Firestone, Firestone, & Catlett, 2006).

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