Gender, Sexual Behavior, Identity, And Sexual Identity

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I. Culture Factors—
According to anthropologist, Victor Turner, societies offer individuals only mainstream options for behavior, identity, and beliefs. People choose to adopt societal customs, in order to fit in for the benefit that the society provides. (Davidson, 2006.) As men grow up, they are encouraged to adopt gender and conform identities that is consistent with their physical sex, but they may encounter unexpected problems as they take the stereotypical masculinity, entering adulthood. Men are encouraged to internalize those identities due to societal pressure (Beggan and Allison, 2001). Physical identity, gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender ideology are all components of sexual identity. The development of sexual identity
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However the violation of gender ideology might have negative consequences (Striepe and Tolman, 2013). Male gender role conflict, the social construction of masculinity, and the gender social norms encourage men to suppress healthy attitudes and behaviors that are believed to be contradictory to the norm (Harris, 2008). The traditional masculinity ideology and lack of reference group identify, lack of relatedness and connection with other male, are related to lower quality romantic relationship for every male (Wade and Donis, 2007). Masculinity contributes to sexual prejudice against gay men because of the strong pressure for men to conform to traditional masculine norms (Mellinger and Levant, 2014). One way for men to earn credibility among other men is through conforming stereotypical expectations when performing masculinity (Harris 2008). Sexual prejudice helps men to demonstrate their masculinity and punishes homosexual men for violating traditional masculine norms (Mellinger and Levant, 2014). However, even if the language is innocuous, it still contributes to homophobic bullying and masculine aggression (Hall and LaFrance, 2012). Gender self-esteem would positively impact on the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice (Mellinger and Levant,
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