Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: A multinational meta-analysis of age differences. Child Development, 87, 1715–1737. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01668.x Ruble, D. N., Taylor, L. J., Cyphers, L., Greulich, F. K., Lurye, L. E., & Shrout, P. E. (2007). The role of gender constancy in early gender development. Child Development, 78, 1121-1136. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01056.x Signorella, M. L., & Liben, L. S. (1990).
(Early Childhood, 2007) Children learn the differences between boys and girls by the environment they are exposed to, and the ideas are reinforced mainly by family, education, peer groups, and the mass media. Family Family is the first influence to the children’s gender socialization. The interaction of children with their parents is the first exposure of the gender differences idea to them. Since the babies is born, parents start to treat sons and daughters differently with their gender stereotype by dressing infants with different colors’ clothes, giving them gender differentiated toys. One study indicates that parents have differential exp... ... middle of paper ... ...ion of gender differences.
It is formed from what children are associated and exposed to. Childhood toys influence gender from an early age, resulting in gender differences in both cognitive and social development. The first effect that shapes children’s development is parental influence and the environment in which they are born and raised. As early as birth, parents have different gender expectations for their child. Parents who exert control result in shaping their child’s identity from a very young age.
The social role theory is the theory that acknowledges that there are physical differences between sexes, and that led men and women to perform different tasks (King 2014). Children pick up on these so-called roles and acted upon them. In a YouTube channel named Advert Enticement, various interviews were done with children about their views on two different dolls. One doll was a girl and one doll was a boy. Many questions were asked about the gender roles.
Sex Roles, 40(1/2), 121-138. Martin, C. L., Ruble, D. N., & Szkrybalo, J. (2002). Cognitive theories of early gender development. Psychological bulletin, 128(6), 903.
Gender-typed play is a very apparent aspect of preschool aged children’s play experiences (Goble, Martin, Hanish, & Fabes, 2012). Research indicates that female children prefer to play with feminine items, and male children prefer to play with masculine items (Goble et al., 2012). It is also evident that children prefer to play with peers of the same-sex (Fabes, Martin, & Hanish, 2003). This could potentially contribute to why research tends to show the same patterns in gender-typed play. However, not every research study has shown this, so what, then, accounts for the variability that can be seen within these preferences in pre-school aged children, and why is this trend so apparent in this age group over others?
Toys teach children gender stereotypes, develop gender identity, and help them socialize. In a word, playing with toys can be seen as a repetition of children’s future life. Children intuitively prefer the toys that fit their gender needs – boys prefer to play with toy weapon while girls prefer to play with dolls. If a child is deprived of an opportunity to play with toys, he or she ends up with a significant gap in his or her mental development and socialization skills. This is why parents should allow their children play with their favorite
Looking at numbers leads to the statistics of gender differences. Boys and girls differ in some aspects of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but bother are affected. Along wi... ... middle of paper ... ...riedman, S. (2007). Clinically Significant Trauma Symptoms and Behavioral Problems in a Community-based Sample of Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 487-499. doi: 10.1007/s10896-007-9113-z Wolfe, D. A., Crooks, C. V., Lee, V., McIntyre-Smith, A., & Jaffe, P. G. (2003).
The differences in the toys geared for boys in contrast to the toys geared towards girls are very different and have a strong influence in defining gender roles. Playing is one of the most effective and influential aspects to child development as they enhance both communicative, intellectual and social skills. Unfortunately, many times these toys are gender specific and set a foundation for gender roles and contribute to shaping children’s personality from a very young age. The toys are gender specific in terms of the colors, types, the images on the toys, how the toys are decorated along with what kinds of phrases or messages accompany the toy. When I went into Toys“R”Us, there was an array of toys.