Gender, Poverty, And Inequality

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It is not uncommon for women across the world to work both outside and within the home on any given day. Women 's work in the formal sector is necessary for economic survival, but their families cannot endure without the work they also put in at home. For many women, the workday does not end when they leave their jobs, but not till many hours later when the children, their spouses, and the home have been taken care of. Beneria and Sen refer to this as the “double day”. The reality of the double day holds important insights into understanding the ways in which the push for economic growth as the main form of development disadvantages women. In Naila Kabeer 's article, Gender, Poverty, and inequality: a brief history of feminist contributions in the field of international development, she speaks to the ways in which economic inequality is both horizontal and vertical, highlighting the economic struggles of women who do this 'double day '. Horizontal inequality "refer[s] to inequalities between socially defined groups that often cut across income groups", where vertical inequality " rank[s] individuals/households by their place in the income/wealth hierarchy"(Kabeer, 2015, 190). The concept of the double day is additionally mentioned in Beneria and Sen 's critique of Boserup, Accumulation, Reproduction and "Women 's Role in Economic Development": Boserup Revisited, where they discuss the ideas brought up by Boserup concerning the influence of European dominance and urbanization on the oppression of women. While for many years there was a focus for women on domestic work this did not always mean they were confined to the home. For the majority of people in the developing world agriculture is a main form of survival and the entire... ... middle of paper ... ...them into effective practices? Or is that just another way of using women as an effective form of societal growth? As we saw through Kabeer, Beneria and Sen, and Boserup’s, pieces women since the rise of European economic colonial power, women have always held a burden of double time. Be it through their negotiations of their economic role versus their social status, their informal work in the home or their monetary gains in the workforce, having to choose between elements of vital importance has always fallen to women. An idea that Mohanty would say is thought to unite us as "sister 's in struggle", and while women, especially women in other cultural contexts should not be thought of as united only under oppression, it is hard to ignore the inequalities that traverse cultures, horizontally, vertically and influence both shifts worked during a women 's double day.
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