Gender Issues In Infant Mortality

explanatory Essay
1133 words
1133 words

If I mention infant mortality, most people will think that in a rural and poor family, they have no money, cannot afford decent basic food and expensive supplements or it is difficult to even go to a large hospital. At the time of childbirth, women can only go to some small clinics or even just give birth at home. Due to lack of nutrition and medical resources, it is easy to make neonate have low weight and infected by diseases which lead to death during infancy. Even pregnant women during childbirth are affected by dystocia, but there are lacks of modern medical supplies that can promptly rescue them, which lead to infant mortality. Many people think that infant mortality just because of some material causes like poverty or old-fashioned medical …show more content…

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that infant mortality is a result of lack of nutrition and medical resources, and ideological reasons like gender discrimination and religious issues.
  • Explains that indian society is patrilineal and patriarchal. women are born with a lower status than men, so parents give better resources to their son instead of their daughter.
  • Explains that female infanticide is not a special case, but an outright mass murder in india.
  • Explains that religion is one of the culprits for infant mortality. unplanned pregnancies, lack of antenatal care, and incomplete early childhood immunization can lead to under-five mortality and chronic diseases.
  • Explains that some denominations encourage consanguineous marriages in india, especially in south india.
  • Opines that ideologies are bred-in-the-bone in indian minds and that the government of india or the indian people can find some solutions.

In Indian cultures, a daughter for a family is a burden. In general, responsibility to support parents is for their son. Before marriage, a daughter belongs to her parents, but when she is married, she belongs to her husband. Moreover, when the daughter marries, her parents need also to provide a lot of money in the form of dowries to give to the husband of their daughter (Ahmad 15-16). Thus, for a utilitarian point of view, having a daughter is only a loss and no gain business. Therefore, in many rural areas, poor families, and even some urban families, after childbirth, if they find out that neonate is a girl, they will drown the newborn (Ahmad 15-16). Female infanticide is not a special case only present in a handful of families. Rudolph Joseph Rummel, a professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii, in his book "Death By Government" wrote that, although the murder of female infants is a single event rather than the masses exist, the murder of female infants can be taken as an act that has official consent and acquiescence, in the Indian society, infanticide is a very common thing (Ahmad 16). By data of population censuses, infanticide has caused a large number of infant mortality, especially female infant deaths (Ahmad 15). Female infanticide in India can even be considered an …show more content…

In India, Hinduism is the main religion, but for some denominations, abortion and using condoms are not acceptable behaviors (Sharma 126). Then, it will cause a large number of unplanned pregnancies. Infants who are because of unplanned pregnancies are also taking a higher risk of death. Because for unwanted pregnancies, it means no antenatal care, which makes it impossible to prevent neonatal defects, deformities, and problems during pregnancy (Sharma 126). In the meantime, these infants are born outside of family planning, so they are likely to be neglected. After they are born, they will lack a skilled attendant. Then, there is incomplete early childhood immunization (Doskoch 223-224). All of these factors can lead to infant mortality. Congenital defects and deformities such as congenital heart disease, thalassemia, and Down 's syndrome will easily lead to under-five mortality and for a large proportion of these infants with these serious diseases; meanwhile, these infants are difficult to live more than 1 year (Doskoch 223-224). Also, unintended pregnancy affects the mother 's health adversely. During pregnancy, it is vulnerable to get chronic diseases, so if she is pregnant again, the probability of infant mortality will be continuously

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