Gender And, Gender, And Social Identity

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Gender and sex are commonly used as interchangeable terms yet when applied to interchangeable lifestyles, history has shown there are great delineations and disparities between individuals who overlay their biological and social identities. Sex is referred to as a person’s biological status comprised of internal organs, external genitalia, and chromosomal composition. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) In contrast, gender refers to feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of cultural gender-normative, expectations, and congruent conformity between sex and gender roles (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals that do not align with standard definitions have been classified as having a Gender Identity Disorder (GID) or as Gender-Variant (GV). Since the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) was published in 2013, all gender related diagnosis have been categorized under Gender Dysphoria (GD) (Zucker, 2009). To gain an in-depth understanding of gender dysphoria this paper will cover the history, criteria, treatment approaches and goals, as well as cultural and environmental issues related to the diagnosis. Description and History of Gender Dysphoria Disorder The first introduction of gender related disorders was in 1980 in the DSM-III, divided into two categories, transsexualism and gender identity disorder of childhood (Kamens, 2011). The later diagnosed as a child having a “strongly and persistently stated desire” or “insistence” that one was the opposite sex (Zucker, 2009; American Psychiatric Association, 1980). Revised categories in the DSM-III-R (1987) included: gender identity disorder of adolescence and adulthood nontranssexual (GIDAANT), and not otherwise specified (GI... ... middle of paper ... ... meet criteria from group A for GD but must also meet group B which specifies that the incongruence experienced surrounding issues of gender, identity, sex, and orientation is a “clinically significant distress” and impairs several areas of important functioning such as school and education, career and occupation, and social or relational (APA, 2013). Children, adolescents and adults may be specified further under GD with a disorder of sexual development and adults may also have a specification of post transition or having undergone some legal, permanent, or lifestyle change to their desired gender and sex (APA, 2013). The DSM-V also recognized two categories, other specified gender dysphoria which meets criteria B and only some of the symptoms under criteria A, and unspecified gender dysphoria, used when there is insufficient evidence of a GD diagnosis (APA, 2013).
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