For many individuals, sexual and gender identity is a highly controversial topic to discuss. Those who have inconsistency with their internal or mental sense of gender compared to their physical gender is now described as a psychological disorder and is found amongst adults and adolescents. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders gender dysphoria also known as gender identity disorder refers to the stresses that accompany with the variances between one’s physical gender they were assigned at birth and one’s expressed or emotional gender (5th ed. ; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Gender dysphoria can be contributed to many different stressors determined by ones social interactions.
The use of “cross-sex” hormones, are very popular when someone is trying to masculinize or feminize the individuals original gender. According to the DSM-5, gender dysphoria is “the distress that may accompany the incongruence between one’s experienced or expressed gender and one’s assigned gender” (American Psychological Association, 2013). Even though studies have shown that not every individual suffers from distress, it is still possible that an individual might suffers from distress due to the hormonal treatment or surgical procedure(s). In the past, gender dysphoria has been referred to as “gender identity”. However, gender identity, by the DSM-IV definition is “a category of social identity and refers to an individual’s identification as male, female, or occasionally, some category other than male or female” (American Psychological Association, 2000).
The book An Intorduction of Sociolinguistics is an outstanding introductary book in the field of sociolinguistics. It encompasses a wide range of language issues. In chapter 13, Wardhaugh provides a good insight to the relationship between language and gender. He explains gender differences of language-in-use with concise examples. Wardhaugh riases questions about sexist language and guides readers to look closer at how people use language differently because of their own gender in daily life.
Personality disorders are prevalent in teenage years all the way through early adulthood. The etiology of personality disorders remains unknown, nonetheless, childhood experiences and genes are said to play a role in causing these mental illnesses. This is from a traditional belief point of view whereby, it is believed that, personality disorders stem from a dysfunctional early environment whereby one is prevented from evolving the adaptive patterns of response, perception, and defense. There are a number of factors that are linked to personality disorders in childhood, for instance sexual abuse, emotional abuse, negligence, physical abuse, and when a child is bullied. In addition, there are emotional/behavioral factors that are also linked to personality disorders which are; bullying others, truanting, prolonged periods of misery, being suspended or expelled from school, and deliberate self harm.
Gender is a term used in discussing the different roles, identities, and expectations that our society associates with males and females. Gender identity shapes how we think and influences our behaviors. Most people identify their gender with the biological sex determined by genitalia; however, some experience discrepancy between biological sex and the feeling of being born as the wrong gender. According to American Accreditation Health Care Commission, gender identity disorder is a conflict between a person's physical gender and the gender he or she identifies with (Health Central). In “Gender Identity Disorder : A Misunderstood, Diagnosis” Kristopher J. Cook says, “Gender identity disorder denotes a strong and persistent desire to be of the other sex (or the insistence that one is of the other sex), together with persistent discomfort about one’s own sex or a sense of inappropriateness in the role assigned to one’s own sex.” (DOCUMENT) As with any disorder, there are many hardships for those that are struggling with Gender Identity Disorder, also known as GID.
The creation of gender expectations by society creates a restricting definition of gender roles and sexuality that vary from culture to culture. Society created the role of gender and created an emphasis on the differences between the two genders. Alma Gottlieb states: “biological inevitability of the sex organs comes to stand for a perceived inevitability of social roles, expectations, and meanings” (Gottlieb, 167). Sex is the scientific acknowledgment that men and women are biologically different; gender stems from society’s formation of roles assigned to each sex and the emphasis of the differences between the two sexes. The creation of meanings centers on the expectations of the roles each sex should fill; society creates cultural norms that perpetuate these creations.
While these standards exist within the society, the concept of a norm varies from person to person as their perceptions and beliefs differ from one another. Works Cited Collins, P. (2004). Get Your Freak On: Sex, Babies, and Images of Black Femininity. Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge.
In our textbook, chapter twelve discusses sexual variants, abuse, and dysfunctions. To narrow down that broad range of abnormalities I want to focus on gender dysphoria. This is not to be confused with an earlier term: gender identity disorder. Where a person who was previously diagnosed with gender identity disorder experiences gender dysphoria, but might not always because of abnormal development of gender or identity. When a person is uncomfortable with their assigned gender or physical sex characteristics, gender dysphoria may be a possible explanation.
Therefore, this gender variance in conformity is not absolute, but rather characteristic of the society, culture and time in which one develops. Thus, it is clear that when taking an individual stance, one’s gender plays an extensive role in said individual response to social pressures, and thus their predisposition towards conformity. Additionally, social media has the power to reinforce gender stereotypes, furthering the gap between males and females in modern society, and thus influence their rates of
Introduction Among the major social determinants of linguistic variation, gender is widely considered to be one of the most significant ones. According to research on a range of linguistic features, gender may even be the dominant factor. The relationship of gender and linguistic behavior is a compelling topic which is getting more and more attention since it is closely related to gender studies. It is widely agreed that men and women use language differently in most speech communities, though to various extents (Holmes, 2001). Many works on the topic indicate that gender-specific linguistic behavior is a social practice which is based on gender identities and power relations (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Bruckmüller, Hegarty & Abele, 2012).