INTRODUCTION Genetic engineering (GE) or genetic modification (GM) are both terms used to describe methods “ to cut up and join together genetic material and especially DNA from one or more species of organism and to introduce the result into an organism in order to change one or more of its characteristics”. Genetic technologies in crops involve the use of GE to change the make-up of certain plants in order to improve their quality or quantity. This essay will critique the following inference that: For centuries human beings have used conventional techniques of selective breeding and cross-breeding of animals and plants to add desired characteristics and reduce or eliminate unwanted ones. New genetic technologies should be welcomed as providing more efficient, effective and controlled mechanisms for improving the quality and quantity of food which can be produced from limited resources of land. ARGUMENT FOR THE STATEMENT.
Genetic Engineering in Agriculture Introduction Genetic Engineering is the technical manipulation of an object from the natural world in a way in which it would provide a benefit to humans. Genetic engineering is also known as recombinant DNA technology which means changing the genes in a living organism to produce a Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) with a new genotype. Various kinds of genetic modification are possible such as inserting a foreign gene from one species into another, forming a transgenic organism; altering an existing gene so that its product is changed; or changing gene expression so that it is translated more often or not at all . Genetic engineering is also sometimes called bioengineering, genetic manipulation, gene technology and biotechnology i.e. the industrial use of biological processes.
GMOs What is a GMO? A GMO, or genetically modified organism, is a virus, bacterium, or more complex life-form in which the DNA has been altered for a particular purpose. Some of these purposes include: research into the nature of genes and biological processes, manufacturing animal proteins, correcting genetic defects, and making improvements to animals and plants (Natural Environment Research Council). Making improvements to animals and plants is a major motivation to produce GMOs. With a world population on its way to 9 plus billion by the year 2050, a viable option for sustenance production is needed.
Since then, scientists have discovered ways to manipulate DNA and even transfer the DNA from one organism to another. Current genetic modification involves a process in which a gene segment literally g... ... middle of paper ... ..., 18 Nov. 2003, <http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05556.html> Shah, Anup. Genetically Engineered Food. 2001. 18 Nov. 2003.
We possibly overlook the microorganisms when thinking of LMO since plants and animals probably will first come to our mind. With the development of recombinant DNA technology, metabolic potentials of microorganisms are being explored. Nowadays, genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) have vast applications in human and animal health, bioremediation, and in industries such as food and textiles. The first GMM, specifically E. coli, was made in the 1970s (Teisha, 2013). A few years later, GMMs which produced essential human proteins were churned out by researchers (Teisha, 2013).
Plant biotechnology uses genetic engineering, which is the process of manipulating genes through isolation and reintroducing the DNA into the cell. This gave birth to Genetically Modified Organism, which are organism according to Dr. Steve Windley, MD, whom structure is manipulated. Modifying these organisms could control what they react and don’t react to, such as resistance to herbicides or it could improve the nutritional content. The other effects may be growth, or a slew of a numerous effects that could go unnoticed for years The History of Genetically Modified Organism. Genetically Modified Organism was introduced to the public approximately fourteen years ago.
• Upadhuau SK, Kumar J, Alok A, Tuli R: RNA Guided Genome Editing for Target Gene Mutation in Wheat. G3 (Bethesda). 2013, g3.113.008847v1. • Nekrasov V, Staskawicz B, Weigel D, Jones JD, Kamoun S: Targeted mutagenesis in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana using Cas9 RNA-guided endonuclease. Nat Biotechnol 2013, 31:691-693
Retrieved May 14, 2011, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/health/pharma/ McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions (2009), Essentials of Biology The Jackson Library (2011) What is Personalized Medicine? , Retrieved on May 14, 2011 from http://genetichealth.jax.org/personalized-medicine/what-is/index.html United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation, What is Mitochondrial Disease?, Retrieved May 14, 2011 from http://www.umdf.org/site/c.otJVJ7MMIqE/b.5692879/k.3851/What_is_Mitochondrial_Disease.htm Pollack, A. (2008), Patient’s DNA May Be Signal To Tailor Medication, Retrieved on May 14, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/30/business/30gene.html
In terms of controversies, one of the greatest concerns is the long-term health affects that genetically modified foods will have on human health” (History of Genetically Modified Foods). There is still a long way to go for these genetically modified crops. In the video “Just Label It” actor Tom Collichio explains that 92% of Americans would rather our food be labeled if it has been genetically modified. It also says that the FDA has no current policy about labeling such products; therefore we have to take a stand if thi... ... middle of paper ... ... genetically modified crops go, think twice next time someone buys something for dinner that may or may not be genetically modified. There are alternatives that are extremely safe, and these could help the general population become, as a whole, healthier.
Through this understanding, geneticists have begun to alter the natural genes found in food. The altercation of genes in food has given these foods the name genetically modified. Currently, the affect of genetically modified food on humans and the environment is a controversial topic among geneticists and environmentalists worldwide. Genetically modified (GM) food is any food that possesses transferred genes from a different organism through the process of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering can be carried out in two separate ways.