By changing a gene in an organism, scientists can produce different traits in an organism and/or its descendants (World Book 85). Researchers have found many important uses for genetic engineering in such fields as medicine, industry and agriculture. Many new uses are predicted for the future (World Book 87). "With the arrival of human genetic engineering, humanity approaches a crossroads in its own technological history. It will soon be possible to engineer and produce human beings by the same technological design principles as we now employ in our industrial processes" (Rifkin 12).
According to Peters P. (1993) “Through the use of the resources in their environments our forefathers acted as the first biotechnologists by manipulating these resources to better their own lives”. Indigenous knowledge has played an important role in the continued development of humanity by not only serving as a way for us to be able to survive in our environment but it also enabled us, as technology improved, to discover why certain home remedies work allowing us to use this information to create modern medicines for example. Today we have the ability to make changes or possibly improvements to organisms through the use of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering has been the cause of debate worldwide as we try to understand whether it is beneficial to humanity and what harmful side effects it may have going forward. The Gene and the Chromosome The gene is defined as “the basic physical and functional unit of heredity” by the Genetics Home Reference (2014).
Plant biotechnology uses genetic engineering, which is the process of manipulating genes through isolation and reintroducing the DNA into the cell. This gave birth to Genetically Modified Organism, which are organism according to Dr. Steve Windley, MD, whom structure is manipulated. Modifying these organisms could control what they react and don’t react to, such as resistance to herbicides or it could improve the nutritional content. The other effects may be growth, or a slew of a numerous effects that could go unnoticed for years The History of Genetically Modified Organism. Genetically Modified Organism was introduced to the public approximately fourteen years ago.
By natural breeding genes are passed down to offspring by the parents however, with new technology scientists are able to identify an individual gene and insert it into another organism which will then carry the trait of that gene. This alters the DNA. The extraction of the gene is done by physical and chemical methods The process of moving a gene from one molecule to another molecule is called cloning. In the cloning process a fragment of DNA, containing a gene is cloned into a vector where it is grown in large quantities and manipulated in a variety of ways. The most common vectors are bacterial plasmids but viruses and self-replicating units in eukaryotic cells are also employed as vectors.
“Civilization rests on people’s ability to modify plants to make them more suitable as food, feed and fiber plants and all of these modifications are genetic” (American Association 1). This quote from the article “Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods” expresses that fact that humans have used the favorable genes of plants since the days of Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics. When plants exhibited a desirable trait, they were bred together so that more of the offspring would have that trait. Genetic Modification is manipulating the genome of the plant, but humans have been doing that for years. Modifying the genes is a more precise way to do this.
Agricultural Genetic Engineering The ability to directly modify living organisms is a novel human technology. Since the discovery of the DNA molecule the field of genetics has grown at an astounding rate. We now have the ability to alter organisms to fit our needs. This prospect offers the possibility of solving problems that have plagued humanity for thousands of years. In recent years genetically modified organisms have found many practical applications, particularly in the agricultural sector.
Genetics are the essence of life they are what make up you and your traits and everything about you. They are what connect you and your parents. You inherit all of your traits from each of your parents. They pass them to you from there chromosomes which have the genes on them. Genetics can be helpful in many ways such as in gene therapy you can know if your child will have genetic disorder and also in genetic engineering you can make it so plants are immune to diseases.
Genetic engineering includes a range of techniques used by scientists to control or modify genes, switch them off or move them between two unrelated species. Using genetic engineering, scientists aim to introduce, enhance or delete particular characteristics of a living thing, depending on whether they are considered desirable or undesirable. The possible impact genetic engineering will have · We will be able to solve the problem of food shortage. We can develop species of rice plants, which will be produced in large amounts, overcome diseases and extreme temperatures. · Repair of a genetic defect (as with trials of gene ther... ... middle of paper ... ...ly when it involves playing around with sperm and ovaries of animals.
When genes from humans turn back into bacteria the bacteria acts as a factory. They produce chemicals of important to humans, such as insulin, which is often used to treat diabetes. A gene that does not work properly would be replaced with one that will work properly. A genetic code of an organism can contain many proteins that are characteristics of that particular organism. The code word are strung together in the DNA molecule to form genes, which specify the order of amino acids i... ... middle of paper ... ...eakthrough because with genetic engineering, we can alter DNA molecules.
Deeper consideration reveals some advantages and serious dangers. What are the advantages of Genetically Engineered Food? Genetic engineering gives today’s researchers considerable advantages in plant breeding programs. ·Predictability Scientist can identify the specific gene for a given trait, make a copy of that gene for insertion into a plant, and be certain that only the new gene is added to the plant. This eliminates the “backcrossing';, traditional plant breeders must do to eliminate extraneous undesired genes that are frequently introduced when using cross-hybridization.