Everyone has possibility of contracting AIDS and HIV; it can change one’s world in a heart beat. 1 HIV/AIDS has become a pandemic virus because of how quickly it has spread throughout the entire world. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which means that it is a virus that attacks the immune system and it can only infect humans. HIV are like other viruses but there is an important difference, overtime your immune system can clear most viruses out of your body. HIV is different, the human immune system can’t get rid of it and scientist are still trying to figure out why our immune system can’t clear it.
The herpes viruses can do this over and over again. They hide in nerve tissue until prompted to erupt leaving painful ulcers as host tissue is destroyed. Human papilloma virus—HPV--causes genital warts and predisposes its victims to cervical cancer. Likewise, hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis C can leave a patient vulnerable to liver cancer. Other cancers in humans are also known to be caused by viruses.
Restraining the virus is done in two ways, either by macrophages and phagocytes, or by killer T cells. Macrophages and phagocytes both contain the virus by engulfing and breaking them down with the help of enzymes and lysosomes (Delves). Killer T cells “recognize antigens from the pathogen” and kills the cell by inducing apoptosis, thus “preventing the spread of the infection to neighboring cells” (Mayer, Nyland). Killer T cells also immobilize infected cells by injecting a substance called perforin, which enters the wall of the infected cell and makes a hole, causing the cell to leak fluids and electrolytes and ultimately lead to their death (Menche, et al). Antibodies also play a vital role in the neutralizing viruses.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, also known as HIV, is a virus that attacks the immune system. It invades our T cells and then makes more copies of itself. It then destroys them and our immune system can no longer fight of other infections or diseases, which can lead to AIDS. There are three major routes it is transferred by. The first route is sexual intercourse through the vaginal, rectal, or penile tissues.
As the number of B cells increases, helper T cells signal them to start producing antibodies. Meanwhile, some of the viruses have entered cells of the body - the only place they are able to replicate. Killer T cells will sacrifice these cells by chemically puncturing their membranes, letting the contents spill out, thus disrupting the viral replication cycle. Antibodies then neutralize the viruses by binding directly to their surfaces, preventing them from attacking other cells. Additionally, they precipitate chemical reactions that actually destroy the infected cells.
This virus weakens your immune system by destroying cells that are important to fighting disease and infection ("What Is HIV/AIDS?," 2012). These cells are called T cells or CD4 cells. The way it works is that the virus invades the T cells to use them so that the virus can replicate itself and later destroys the cells ("What Is HIV/AIDS?," 2012). Once your body has lost many of these T cells your body can no longer fight infection or diseases and that’s when HIV leads to AIDS ("What Is HIV/AIDS?," 2012). So where did this syndrome and virus originate and how does it come to be you ask?
The disease is hugely prominent in today’s society and will continue to have a major effect on humanity until a cure is hopefully found. This paper will discuss the pathogenicity of one of the worst diseases in today’s medicine as well as possible treatments. People with HIV have an infection that damages their immune system over time and eventually develops into AIDS. AIDS is the final stage of an HIV infection where the immune system is damaged and too weak to fight off ordinary infections. In a normal healthy human, when foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses get into the body, they can cause infections.
The immune system is known to help in the fight against cancer. A type of white cell, which is called the killer cells, is able to identify tumour cells simply by its change in its surface membrane. Other cells, called the helper cells, assist the killers to multiply and they then connect themselves to the cancerous cells to destroy them. There are two types of defence - the innate and the adaptive. The innate includes barriers like the skin and antibacterial enzymes within tears.
To protect against this, the global authorities are trying to assure that the best drug used to fight it is only sold as a combination pill with other anti-malaria medicines. The story of drug-resistant malaria in Cambodia is significant because people in other countries could be affected and must be aware of the fact that it is becoming immune to the most powerful drugs used to fight it. So many people have died from this deadly disease and so many are dying from it already, so many more are at risk and they must be aware.
Topic : HIV a perfectly evolved stealthy intruder. Title: Mechanisms of CD4+ T cells depletion during HIV-1 infection. Introduction The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus,which affects the human immune system. HIV infects cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells,and helper T cells ,most commonly CD4+ T cells. The virus invades cells that are vital for the immune system to work properly.HIV causes depletion of immune cells as a result of viral replication.The virus causes persistent infection of the immune system, leading to low counts of CD4+ T cells .Helper T-cell depletion occurs during HIV-1 infection.Low levels of such cells are brought on by different mechanisms during the infection.