· routers, like every other device on the network, send and receive data on the network, and build ARP tables that map IP addresses to MAC addresses · if the source resides on a network that has a different network number than the desired destination, and if the source does not know the MAC address of the destination, it will have to use the router as a default gateway for its data to reach the destination · routed protocols direct user traffic, whereas routing protocols work between routers to maintain path tables · network discovery for distance-vector routing involves exchange of routing tables The next chapter discusses the functions of the transport layer. Bibliography: www.news.com
Routing tables are either created statically, or by the systems administrator configuring the system, using the startup or configuration fiels, to used a pre-defined, unchanging route.dynamically. · There are protocols, part of TCP/IP, that will dynamically modify the routing table in response to events. · Adding a host to the network requires obtaining, installing and configuring the necessary network hardware, gather the required information including IP address and hostname of the new host, the gateway and the name server, the network address and the subnet mask, modify the appropriate configuration and startup files with that information, make sure the new host has an entry in the domain name service, test the connection.
It is considered as the backbone of the OSI model because for the purpose for the data transfer between nodes, network layer performs selection and management of the best logical path. Switches, firewalls, bridges and routers are some hardware devices that this layer contains. From the transport layer it responds to requests and issues requests to the data link layer. The process of moving data from one network to another is known as routing. Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) handle routing within a single Autonomous System.
CONCLUSION: In this project from ZIGBEE Network using OPNET simulator I observed how PANs work along with the routers and end devices for different and basic scenarios. Graphs are plotted for all original scenario networks. I also changed the destination to routers from original scenario and observed the plots under modified scenarios. So that from plots it is clear that how end-to-end devices, load (bits/sec) and PAN affiliation changes. Also we can observe the traffic received for all PANs at a time and changes in visualization functions.
A router is a device that connects to multiple networks and forwards packets across them. When a data packet is sent to the router it reads the address (IP address) and sends it to its destination. They are like traffic directors; they manage all of the data packets (traffic) that comes in and going out of the network by sending them to their correct destinations. When one router sends a packet across a network, another router will receive it and send it to the right destination, by doing the same thing. A router is connected to two or more networks, which are normally LANs or WANs.
The main function of the switch, router, gateways, or hubs is having the ability to process and forward data packets on the network. The creation and function is to ensure that each having their own unique functions and configurations which makes one a more viable optional choice over the next for ensuring data forwarding. For example, large networks will need routing protocols that will send the data packet to the intended destination and not broadcast it throughout the entire network. Gateways provide nodes with a contactless connection into the resources that are available for the users. The basic gateways that are installed in many pc are called NIC’s or network interface card (Andrews, 2006, pp.
Networked PCs are a great example. Tasks are accomplished at the computer and at other computers using communication. In the definition of a network the computer hardware is considered part of the user in this definition. The hardware used to connect to other computers is considered part of the protocol.
By use of TCP/IP, several computers on small network in a department can use these protocols in conjunction with other protocols on a single LAN. In this protocol suite, the IP components helps in routing form the small LAN in that department to regional and also to the global internet. TCP/IP is made up of layers which enable it to perform its tasks. The IP part is responsible of moving packet from one node to the other based on the destination IP address. This IPs are mainly assigned by the internet authorities to service providers and thus making it easier for computers to communicate because the IPs assigned to them makes them unique and thus packets can move from source to destination all over the world.
Switching & Routing The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of switching and routing used in a network environment and familiarize the reader with various hardware and software associated with there functions. This paper will look at some switching concepts that will include store and forward switching, cut through switching, fragment free switching, and V-Lan. This paper will also cover routing concepts, along with some comparisons including routed vs. routing protocols, Classful vs. classless protocols, and distance vector vs. link state protocols. Switching The definition of a switch or network switch is a small device that joins multiple computers together, working on layer two of the OSI, to form a local area network or LAN. Network switches are also known as smart hubs.
RIPv1 shows information such as: IP address, gateway, interface, metric, and/or timer. Portma... ... middle of paper ... ...buted database in order to store the names as well as address information for all public hosts on the Internet. DNS also assumes IP addresses are static, rather than dynamic. ARP, or Address Resolution Protocol, is used to map an IP address to a physical machine (i.e. Ethernet) address that has been recognized in the local network.