Constructivism represents a paradigm shift form education based on cognitive theories. This concept assumes that learners construct their own knowledge on the basis of interaction with their environment. (Gagnon & Collay, 200?) The role of the teacher as a constructor of the learning experience to ensure authentic curriculum and assessment which is responsive to the skills, needs and experiences of the learner, within established curriculum framework and with the reference to the achievement of literacy, numeracy, retention and attainment of outcomes. Krause, Bochner and Duchesne (p.157) comment that “as learners interact with their environment, they link information learned through experience to previous knowledge, and so construct new understandings and knowledge.” Constructivism then inturn encourages Teachers and Learning Managers to recognise the value of prior knowledge and experiences that each child brings with them into the classroom, and help them (the students) build on their understandings of the world by providing appropriate learning experience plans.
Linking instruction and assessment is critical to effective learning. Educators should provide students with various options for learning that include: different ways to learning (style and time), di... ... middle of paper ... ...re provided with ample opportunities to demonstrate their abilities. MI theory is used as formal and informal assessment in the classroom to allow students to be grasp and understand concepts. The use of multiple types of assessments in the classroom yield richer and more qualitative information about a child's achievement. If the ultimate goal is student learning, then there is a place for both standardized testing and authentic assessment using the MI theory in today's classroom.
Boud describes the characteristics of self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and or making criteria and making judgments about the extent to which they met these criteria and standards. (Boud, 1991pg 12) This encourages learners to be more independent and learn how to learn. Learners who are more involved in assessing themselves and others are more likely to develop the attributes and skills they need to become resilient, self-motivating learners. Students take first steps towards independent and autonomous learning by developing learning strategies based on evaluations. This enables students to assess their own work and that of their peers and provides opportunities to discuss and reflect on their achievements, for example, peer ratings, creative writing, sharing portfolios in pairs or an oral presentation.
The learning resource must contain information that is accurate and aligned with the learning objective. It should also be well organized in a logical manner that supports the learner. The design of the lesson should include examples and give students to opportunity to practice the skill that is being taught. Having examples will also ensure students understand the learning resource and what is expected of them to be successful in achieving the learning objective. When choosing materials the end goal of the design of the learning resource is to helps students achieve the objective and ... ... middle of paper ... ...mportant and what is not.
The Foundation for Learning Students past interests, experiences, prior knowledge, references and thought processes can effective the way students learn, process information and remember due to prior experiences, how it made them feel and their personal views and attitude towards specific subjects and can alter the way they learn new material and concepts because of this meaningful learning is important. It is a teachers job to have teach students in a way that can relate to their background knowledge and insure that material in on a level the student an process. Material and lessons should be relevant to the student to make it easier to promote learning in the classroom. However, learning cannot occur without having a prior foundation because this gives a basis from which to build. “The link between past experiences, student interest, and present learning is that we draw upon previous experiences and memories as we learn” (Slavin, 2006).
Questioning can also aid the educator by assessing the students’ comprehension and understanding, thereby allowing the modification of instruction if necessary (Chappell & Thompson, 1999). The form, content, and purpose of the que... ... middle of paper ... ...earned through this research that the questioning strategy I employ must be tailored to fit the goal of the lesson. My strategy must assess prior knowledge and constantly monitor student learning throughout the lesson. My use of proper questioning will facilitate deeper understanding of concepts and will enable the students to grow and expand their knowledge. References Chappell, M.F.
According to University of Hawai’i Manoa, developing student learning outcomes “helps students learn more effectively and make clear what students should expect from their educational experience”. For example, it is very important that teachers must show, read out, or write the learning outcomes on the board at beginning of lesson so that student can always refer and look at it to expect what they are going to learn and gain from the lesson. Not only that but, with the help of the teachers and the guiding questions and activities will help the students achieve the lesson outcomes. According to Goucher College, writing a lesson outcome “increased student awareness of their own learning which give students a way to think and talk about what they have learned and make it easier for students to “know what they know” and give them a language to communicate what they know to others. For example, when teacher give questions and activities for students to do, it should be questions and activities that will facilitates students learning and help them met the outcomes.
In the world of education, assessments play an integral role in student learning. To get the most out of assessments, they must be aligned with the standards, accurately measure what students know, as well as promote student learning (McTighe and O’Connor, 2005). In order to do this, it is important to include students in the assessment planning process. This should begin at the beginning of a unit with the pre-assessment and should be carried throughout the formative and summative assessments. Dr. Anne Davies believes that “when students are involved in the assessment process, they are more engaged and motivated, and they learn more” (Davies, 2007, p. 31).
One important aspect to make students’ learning valuable is to focus the planning in setting objectives in terms of desired outcomes (knowledge skills, attitudes, values) that we want our students to develop. By developing clear objectives, students feel that there is a reason for learning. Also, it is important to provide feedback, because it helps students improve their goals’ achievement and solidify their understanding. Teachers need to communicate objectives, in this way students will be able to know what they are doing in class and what they are supposed to learn. Some recommendations for setting objectives in the classroom are: Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive: it is important to know the specific standards, benchmarks and supporting learning that students at school are required to learn.
Killen (2005) declares assessment encourages student learning, determines what targets need to be re-taught or amended and helps to identify ways of improving teaching and learning. For teachers to measure progress and development they need to assess the cognitive and affective domains to identify what knowledge and skills are understood when learning. Therefore, by placing significance on affective learning targets, through attitudes, values, motivation,