He is clearly biased from his childhood experiences. Furthermore, even Freud recognized an error in this theory “Freud gradually realized he could not accommodate anxiety dreams to his theory that every dream is the fulfillment of a wish” (Cavell). Even Freud acknowledged that his theory of dreams and the unconsciousness were flawed. Carl Jung’s theories are, overall, much better reasoning than Freud’s. Despite this, the idea of the collective unconscious is hard to believe without scientific reasoning behind it.
One of the main critiques of psychoanalysis is that is solely lacks scientific proof. It is unmeasurable and cannot be proven nor disproven. Another major critique is that Freud used the case-study method, and focused mainly on wealthy European women, instead of broadening his studies on other types of people. Many people think that Freud over-sexualized everything in his theories, as well. Although Freud’s theories are often critiqued and overlooked, it is no secret that because of Sigmund Freud and his findings, psychology has come as far as it has today.
With psychoanalysis, Freud tried to interpret the causes of patients ’problems by gaining an insight or revealing the unconscious processes to the conscious awareness. According to Freud, the mind can be divided into three different levels: the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious. The conscious includes everything that we are aware of. Preconscious includes our memory, feelings and thoughts, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Finally, the unconscious contains all the feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness.
So, it is really only the Oedipus and Elektra complexes that seem very suspect to me, and I do find it pretty disappointing that Freud’s instance on sexuality playing the major role in an individual’s personality and behavior tends to overshadow some of his other, more relevant and nuanced, theories. I’ve taken the MMPI-2 in a non-clinical setting, as well as various “unofficial” MBTI inventories, and found them very ... ... middle of paper ... ... confirms what the chapter says about how we might develop positive or negative feelings about others just because of what happens while we are around them. And though the situation was stressful, my coworker did have my back and didn’t let the customer continue to yell at and lie about me. The concept of prejudice and discrimination is discussed later in the chapter. I grew up in South Florida, and although there is racism everywhere, I was not exposed to extreme amounts of it.
Freud had many people that believed in his works but, he had even more who thought he was a poor therapist who made up the theory psychoanalysis .With all the buzz about psychoanalysis many professors wondered how they could get in on the action (Menand). “Although teachers dislike the term "hidden meanings," decoding a subtext or exposing an implicit meaning or ideology is what a lot of academic literary criticism does” (Menand). That being said, many professors tried decoding psychoanalysis to see what it was all about. One professor excited about the possibilities was Frederick Crews (Menand). As he began researching psychoanalysis he emerged as a full-blown critic of Freud.
In Freud’s view, childhood experiences of seduction that are later recalled in adulthood bring shame and guilt (Fonagy & Sandler, 1997, p. 164), and therefore, repression may also be used for this reason. In Freudian repression, “the ego seeks to avoid internal conflict and pain, and to reconcile reality with the demands of both id and super-ego” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). The id, ego, and super-ego are Freud’s division of personality. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory (1923), the “id” deals with primitive needs and instinct, the “ego” with the external world and with unrealistic primitive needs, and the “super-ego” with the morals and values inflicted by society (McLeod,
The ego, which can be seen as the mediator between the id and the super-ego, takes into account the activities of the external world, and attempts to invoke some balance among all three parts of the mind, with failure resulting in neurosis of some kind. Freud’s “Lecture III” provides, what I believe to be another important theory in understanding personality from this perspective, stemming from his notion of parapraxes, or unintentional acts that are actually unconsciously intentional. Such is the case with the familiar “Freudian slip”, where something is said which is actually a distortion or paradox of what is actually meant. This goes along with what are called symbolic acts, which are actions we take that, although we insist they have no meaning, or were accidental in nature, are actually intentional. For example, the act of forgetting is, according to Freud, a kind of intentional defense mechanism, that we unconsciously use to repress memories, or put things out of our minds.
In doing this, some people see Freud as a pioneer in the science of psychoanalysis. However, Freud is far from what most people consider to be scientific in both his methods and the facts he uses as evidence. Freud applies his theories to Dora and her case of hysteria; but he does it in such a way that is very unscientific and as a result is not convincing. Freud had developed his theory of hysteria and how its origin came from repressed sexual desire. He diagnosed Dora as someone who was suffering from hysteria as a result of this repressed desire.
In turn, the libido is developed by changing the object that you took pleasure in. Although Freud had many theories, as they were brought up, they were disproven. Some noted facts against his theories is that they were based almost completely on a males development then assumed to be equal for females. There is also difficulty in testing. Concepts like libido cannot be measure and vary from person to person which made testing impossible.
All of which have been subjectively interpreted by the analyst. Freud’s work has been criticised as being biased towards one gender and the focus of his theories that males are superior as they have a penis and females don’t is biased in favour of males. Whilst Psychodynamic theory has its critics, it cannot be denied that it is certainly helpful in some cases, examples of cases where psychoanalysis is helpful are, people who have been abused, people suffering from eating disorders and those in need of family therapy. All of which are sadly all too prevalent in today’s society. References