Fresh Water Scarcity in China

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Water plays an important role in our lives. All living things need water to live. 70% of the earth’s surface is water. Most of the water is salt water that is less likely to be used in our daily life. Less than 2% of earth’s water is freshwater that can be utilized by humans (Western Upper Peninsula Center for Science, Mathematics and Envorimental Education & Sustainable Futures Institute). Hence, freshwater resources are very limited. Moreover, such water resources are not evenly distributed across the areas. For instance, in China, north region only has 5% of the fresh water resources which supports around 40% of the population. Moreover, water is increasingly scarce in China due to population growth and rapid industrialization during the past decades. It is inevitable that total water use will grow along with China’s economy while the water scarcity is getting more severe, and therefore, the topic of water use and conservation is worth of discussing. In this paper, I will discuss China’s water use and conservation with a focus on industrial sectors and will come up with an intervention program with its evaluation. Basically, the body of the paper can be divided into three parts as follows: background and policy issue, my intervention program, and the evaluation of the program. Background and Policy Issue China has largest population around the world. In recent years, the water demand has grown rapidly to 4.13*1012m3 while the overall supply of water in China keeps falling every year. Based on climate scientists’ estimation, China’s total water supply drops by more than 90 trillion gallons annually (Cho, 2011). More than 450 cities in China suffer severe water shortages problems. The problem has been getting increasingly sever... ... middle of paper ... ...rences or changes are statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis will be conducted to test the cause-effect relationship between the program outcome variables and financial incentives of the program. 5) Summarize the findings and make a conclusion 6) Feedback to Program Improvement Lastly, after reviewing the findings and results, we can make some recommendations about the program. If the program does not reach my expectation, extra questions should be asked to diagnose the failure of the program such as “Are the subsidies, grants and refunds appropriate that the companies are willing to adopt the water recycling?” and “Is the study time long enough to spot any changes and effects of the program?” Benefit-Cost Analysis Before discussing Benefit-Cost Analysis in detail, the basic steps and the framework of Benefit-Cost Analysis are shown in Figure 1.
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